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Nutrition and Prostate Cancer

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2020) | Viewed by 44866

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Salud Carlos III | ISCIII Department of Epidemiology of Chronic diseases
Interests: epidemiology, prostate cancer, metals, nutrients, breast cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prostate cancer (PC), represents the most common type of cancer among males in Europe and the third with the highest mortality. In spite of this, its aetiology is not yet well understood. The risk of developing PC is clearly related to age, race, genetic susceptibility, and familial history of this cancer, all of which are non-modifiable factors; however, to date, the International Agency of Research on Cancer has found no sufficient evidence to link PC with any of the external exposures evaluated, and there is only limited evidence for a small number of specific agents.

Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for many cancers, but, again, its relationship with PC is not clear. The WCRF/AICR’s last assessment suggests a possible increase in risk of PC in men with higher consumption of dairy products and other foods rich in calcium and in those with low levels of selenium and alpha-tocopherol in plasma; however, for most foods and nutrients, the available data do not evidence a clear conclusion in regard to their relationship with this cancer. Another relevant line of research in this area is the study of dietary patterns; some authors have found a lower risk associated with the Mediterranean diet and/or higher risks with Western dietary patterns, but the results are less consistent than those reported for other cancers, such as colorectal cancers.

Epidemiological research in PC presents specific challenges, which are partly due to the variability in the prevalence of early detection tests with prostate-specific antigens (PSAs). This test allows for the detection of low-grade and, many times, indolent cancers that may have a different risk profile than high-grade PC. Therefore, a specific focus on this last aggressive subgroup is needed in order to progress in the knowledge of the possible role of nutrients and diet in the occurrence of this cancer. In addition, the modulator role of genetic data, either related to PC susceptibility or to the metabolism of nutrients, can also add a more complete view of the epidemiology of this cancer. Finally, the relationship of nutrient-related factors in the progression of PC is another understudied area that should be given attention.

Dr. Beatriz Perez-Gomez
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Aggressive prostate cancer incidence
  • Prostate cancer progression
  • Nutrients
  • Dietary patterns

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Population-Based Case-Control Study in Montreal, Canada
by Karine Trudeau, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Christine Barul, Ilona Csizmadi and Marie-Élise Parent
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071907 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 9415
Abstract
This study describes the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada (2005–2012). Cases (n = 1919) were histologically confirmed, aged ≤75 years. Concomitantly, controls (n = 1991) were randomly selected [...] Read more.
This study describes the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada (2005–2012). Cases (n = 1919) were histologically confirmed, aged ≤75 years. Concomitantly, controls (n = 1991) were randomly selected from the electoral list and frequency-matched to cases by age (±5 years). During face-to-face interviews, a 63-item food frequency questionnaire focusing on the two years before diagnosis/interview was administered. Three dietary patterns were identified from principal component analysis. Unconditional logistic regression estimated the association between dietary patterns and PCa, adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, family history, and timing of last PCa screening. When comparing scores in the highest vs. lowest quartiles, the Healthy Eating pattern was associated with a decreased risk of overall PCa (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61, 0.93); this association was stronger for high-grade cancers (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.89). By contrast, the Western Sweet and Beverages pattern was associated with an elevated risk of overall PCa (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.66). The Western Salty and Alcohol pattern was not associated with PCa risk. These findings suggest that some dietary patterns influence PCa development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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15 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Compliance with the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Cancer Prevention Recommendations and Prostate Cancer
by Olmedo-Requena Rocío, Lozano-Lorca Macarena, Salcedo-Bellido Inmaculada, Jiménez-Pacheco Antonio, Vázquez-Alonso Fernando, García-Caballos Marta, Sánchez María-José and Jiménez-Moleón José-Juan
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030768 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3630
Abstract
The etiology of prostate cancer (PCa) remains largely unknown. Compliance with the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and its relationship to PCa was evaluated. A total of 398 incident PCa cases and 302 controls were [...] Read more.
The etiology of prostate cancer (PCa) remains largely unknown. Compliance with the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and its relationship to PCa was evaluated. A total of 398 incident PCa cases and 302 controls were included. The selection criteria for both cases and controls were: (i) age between 40–80 years; and (ii) residence in the coverage area of the reference hospitals for 6 months or more prior to recruitment. A score to measure the compliance with the recommendations of 2018 WCRC/AICR criteria was built. The level of compliance was used as a continuous variable and categorized in terciles. The aggressiveness of PCa was determined according to the ISUP classification. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. A slight protective tendency was observed between the level of compliance with the preventive recommendations and PCa risk, aOR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.69–0.96) for the total cases of PCa. This association also was observed when the aggressiveness was considered. In addition, limiting consumption of “fast foods”, sugar-sweetened drinks, and alcohol were independently associated with lower risk of PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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12 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Extent of Food Processing and Risk of Prostate Cancer: The PROtEuS Study in Montreal, Canada
by Karine Trudeau, Marie-Claude Rousseau and Marie-Élise Parent
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030637 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4950
Abstract
We studied the association between food intake, based on the extent of processing, and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2005–2012. Incident prostate cancer cases (n = 1919) aged ≤75 years were histologically confirmed. Population [...] Read more.
We studied the association between food intake, based on the extent of processing, and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2005–2012. Incident prostate cancer cases (n = 1919) aged ≤75 years were histologically confirmed. Population controls (n = 1991) were randomly selected from the electoral list and frequency-matched to cases by age (±5 years). A 63-item food frequency questionnaire focusing on the two years prior to diagnosis/interview was administered by interviewers. The NOVA classification was used to categorize foods based on processing level. Unconditional logistic regression estimated the association between food intake and prostate cancer risk, adjusting for age, education, ethnicity, family history, and timing of last prostate cancer screening. Consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods showed a slight, inverse association (Odd ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–1.07; highest vs. lowest quartile) with prostate cancer. An increased risk was observed with higher intake of processed foods (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.05–1.59; highest vs. lowest quartile), but not with consumption of ultra-processed food and drinks. The associations with unprocessed/minimally processed foods and processed foods were slightly more pronounced for high-grade cancers (ORs 0.80 and 1.33, respectively). Findings suggest that food processing may influence prostate cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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16 pages, 497 KiB  
Article
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Survey in Men under Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: from Intake to Prostate Tissue Level
by Hanane Moussa, Molière Nguile-Makao, Karine Robitaille, Marie-Hélène Guertin, Janie Allaire, Jean-François Pelletier, Xavier Moreel, Nikunj Gevariya, Caroline Diorio, Patrice Desmeules, Bernard Têtu, Benoît Lamarche, Pierre Julien and Vincent Fradet
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071616 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5779
Abstract
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids (ω3), particularly long-chain ω3 (LCω3), have protective effects against prostate cancer (PCa) in experimental studies. Observational studies are conflicting, possibly because of the biomarker used. This study aimed at evaluating associations between grade reclassification and ω3 levels assessed in [...] Read more.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids (ω3), particularly long-chain ω3 (LCω3), have protective effects against prostate cancer (PCa) in experimental studies. Observational studies are conflicting, possibly because of the biomarker used. This study aimed at evaluating associations between grade reclassification and ω3 levels assessed in prostatic tissue, red blood cells (RBC), and diet. We conducted a validation cross-sectional study nested within a phase II clinical trial. We identified 157 men diagnosed with low-risk PCa who underwent a first active surveillance repeat prostate biopsy session. Fatty acid (FA) intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and their levels measured in prostate tissue and RBC. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression. At first repeat biopsy session, 39 (25%) men had high-grade PCa (grade group ≥2). We found that high LCω3-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) level in prostate tissue (odds ratio (OR) 0.25; 95% (confidence interval (CI) 0.08–0.79; p-trend = 0.03) was associated with lower odds of high-grade PCa. Similar results were observed for LCω3 dietary intake (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p-trend = 0.02) but no association for RBC. LCω3-EPA levels in the target prostate tissue are inversely associated with high-grade PCa in men with low-risk PCa, supporting that prostate tissue FA, but not RBC FA, is a reliable biomarker of PCa risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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Review

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34 pages, 2361 KiB  
Review
Mechanism of Anti-Cancer Activity of Curcumin on Androgen-Dependent and Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer
by Nurul Azwa Abd. Wahab, Nordin H. Lajis, Faridah Abas, Iekhsan Othman and Rakesh Naidu
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030679 - 2 Mar 2020
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 9427
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous disease and ranked as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males worldwide. The global burden of PCa keeps rising regardless of the emerging cutting-edge technologies for treatment and drug designation. There are a number of [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous disease and ranked as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males worldwide. The global burden of PCa keeps rising regardless of the emerging cutting-edge technologies for treatment and drug designation. There are a number of treatment options which are effectively treating localised and androgen-dependent PCa (ADPC) through hormonal and surgery treatments. However, over time, these cancerous cells progress to androgen-independent PCa (AIPC) which continuously grow despite hormone depletion. At this particular stage, androgen depletion therapy (ADT) is no longer effective as these cancerous cells are rendered hormone-insensitive and capable of growing in the absence of androgen. AIPC is a lethal type of disease which leads to poor prognosis and is a major contributor to PCa death rates. A natural product-derived compound, curcumin has been identified as a pleiotropic compound which capable of influencing and modulating a diverse range of molecular targets and signalling pathways in order to exhibit its medicinal properties. Due to such multi-targeted behaviour, its benefits are paramount in combating a wide range of diseases including inflammation and cancer disease. Curcumin exhibits anti-cancer properties by suppressing cancer cells growth and survival, inflammation, invasion, cell proliferation as well as possesses the ability to induce apoptosis in malignant cells. In this review, we investigate the mechanism of curcumin by modulating multiple signalling pathways such as androgen receptor (AR) signalling, activating protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/the serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt/mTOR), wingless (Wnt)/ß-catenin signalling, and molecular targets including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclin D1 which are implicated in the development and progression of both types of PCa, ADPC and AIPC. In addition, the role of microRNAs and clinical trials on the anti-cancer effects of curcumin in PCa patients were also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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42 pages, 962 KiB  
Review
Phytochemicals in Prostate Cancer: From Bioactive Molecules to Upcoming Therapeutic Agents
by Bahare Salehi, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe, Brice Tchatat Tali, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Amirhossein Rahavian, Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau, Miquel Martorell, William N. Setzer, Célia F. Rodrigues, Natália Martins, William C. Cho and Javad Sharifi-Rad
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071483 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 10995
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the second deadliest malignancy in men and the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men. Traditional plants have been applied to handle various diseases and to develop new drugs. Medicinal plants are potential sources of natural bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the second deadliest malignancy in men and the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men. Traditional plants have been applied to handle various diseases and to develop new drugs. Medicinal plants are potential sources of natural bioactive compounds that include alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and steroids. Many of these naturally-occurring bioactive constituents possess promising chemopreventive properties. In this sense, the aim of the present review is to provide a detailed overview of the role of plant-derived phytochemicals in prostate cancers, including the contribution of plant extracts and its corresponding isolated compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Prostate Cancer)
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