Exercise and Nutrition Interventions for Improving Musculoskeletal Health in Older Adults

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 2897

Special Issue Editors

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Muscle Biophysics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: striated mucle; nutrition; musculoskeletal system; muscle single fibres biophysics; muscle physiopathology; muscle aging and sarcopenia
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Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
Interests: skeletal muscle; aging; metabolism; intracellular traffic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for locomotion and movement, also plays a fundamental role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism.

Physical exercise and nutrition are important factors in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. For this reason, in present times, they are considered as targets for the maintenance of a healthy equilibrium and to overcome the effects of aging.

Aging entails a crucial reduction of muscle function and bone strength, causing sarcopenia, osteoporosis, metabolic dysfunction, and inflammation. In aged persons, these conditions are a premise for frailty, disability, and a loss of independence and these in the presence of comorbidities, reduce quality of life and lifespan.

This Special Issue intends to expand the knowledge on the role of physical exercise and nutritional interventions to promote the healthy aging of the musculoskeletal system and its implications on the quality of life of aged persons.

The present Special Issue aims at collecting reviews, regular research papers, and short communications, providing novel insights on the importance of physical exercise and nutritional interventions in human or animal studies that have relevance to human health.

Dr. Luana Toniolo
Dr. Emiliana Giacomello
Guest Editors

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  • musculoskeletal system
  • skeletal muscle
  • exercise
  • nutrition
  • frailty
  • sarcopenia
  • metabolic dysfunction

Published Papers (1 paper)

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31 pages, 4259 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparative Efficacy of Different Protein Supplements on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Physical Indices of Sarcopenia among Community-Dwelling, Hospitalized or Institutionalized Older Adults Undergoing Resistance Training: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Chun-De Liao, Shih-Wei Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Mao-Hua Huang, Tsan-Hon Liou and Che-Li Lin
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16070941 - 25 Mar 2024
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Aging-related sarcopenia exerts harmful impacts on muscle mass, strength, and physical mobility. Protein supplementation has been demonstrated to augment efficacy of resistance training (RT) in elderly. This study compared the relative effects of different protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and mobility outcomes [...] Read more.
Aging-related sarcopenia exerts harmful impacts on muscle mass, strength, and physical mobility. Protein supplementation has been demonstrated to augment efficacy of resistance training (RT) in elderly. This study compared the relative effects of different protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and mobility outcomes in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing RT. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of protein supplement plus RT in untrained community-dwelling adults, hospitalized, or institutionalized residents who suffered acute or chronic health conditions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed using a frequentist method for all analyses. Treatment effects for main outcomes were expressed as standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the surface-under-the cumulative-ranking (SUCRA) scores to rank probabilities of effect estimation among all identified treatments. Meta-regression analyses were performed to identify any relevant moderator of the treatment efficacy and results were expressed as β with 95% credible interval (CrI). We finally included 78 RCTs (5272 participants) for analyses. Among the six protein sources identified in this NMA, namely whey, milk, casein, meat, soy, and peanut, whey supplement yielded the most effective treatments augmenting efficacy of RT on muscle mass (SMD = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.62; SUCRA = 0.86), handgrip strength (SMD = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.00; SUCRA = 0.85), and walking speed (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39, 1.07; SUCRA = 0.84). Participant’s health condition, sex, and supplementation dose were significant factors moderating the treatment efficacy on muscle mass (β = 0.74; 95% CrI: 0.22, 1.25), handgrip strength (β = −1.72; 95% CrI: −2.68, −0.77), and leg strength (β = 0.76; 95% CrI: 0.06, 1.47), respectively. Our findings suggest whey protein yields the optimal supplements to counter sarcopenia in older individuals undergoing RT. Full article
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