Special Issue "Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Karsten Koehler
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University Munich, Uptown München-Campus D, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 60/62, D-80992 München, Germany
Interests: energy balance; diet and exercise interventions for weight loss; hormonal regulation of body weight; body composition; sports nutrition
Dr. Clemens Drenowatz
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Physical Education, University of Education Upper Austria, 4020 Linz, Austria
Interests: energy balance, exercise, motor competence, physical fitness, youth, physical activity, health promotion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts that focus on the integration of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions on outcomes related to lifelong health. Manuscripts for consideration in this Special Issue can either describe original research or review the scientific literature. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions that combine dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions are also welcomed.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Impact of diet and exercise interventions on energy balance, body weight control, and obesity
  • Dietary manipulations that augment the therapeutic effect of physical activity and exercise on diseases linked to declines in muscle mass and function (e.g., sarcopenia, cachexia, disuse atrophy)
  • Combination of diet and exercise approaches to improve diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other metabolic and/or endocrine conditions
  • Interventions utilizing diet and exercise to maximize bone health and/or prevent osteoporosis
  • Biomarkers of physical activity and dietary intake
  • Impact of physical activity and exercise on nutrient status
  • Anti-ageing potential of diet and exercise interventions
Dr. Karsten Koehler
Dr. Clemens Drenowatz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Balance
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Muscle Mass
  • Muscle Function
  • Weight Loss
  • Weight Maintenance
  • Biomarkers

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071437 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
It is well established that healthy nutrition and physical activity (PA) are key lifestyle factors that modulate lifelong health through their ability to improve body composition, musculoskeletal health, and physical and cognitive performance, as well as to prevent metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes [...] Read more.
It is well established that healthy nutrition and physical activity (PA) are key lifestyle factors that modulate lifelong health through their ability to improve body composition, musculoskeletal health, and physical and cognitive performance, as well as to prevent metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease across the lifespan [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Pro-Regenerative Effects of Carbohydrates and Protein Administrated by Shake and Non-Macro-Nutrient Matched Food Items on the Skeletal Muscle after Acute Endurance Exercise
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040744 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical performance and regeneration after exercise is enhanced by the ingestion of proteins and carbohydrates. These nutrients are generally consumed by athletes via whey protein and glucose-based shakes. In this study, effects of protein and carbohydrate on skeletal muscle regeneration, given either by [...] Read more.
Physical performance and regeneration after exercise is enhanced by the ingestion of proteins and carbohydrates. These nutrients are generally consumed by athletes via whey protein and glucose-based shakes. In this study, effects of protein and carbohydrate on skeletal muscle regeneration, given either by shake or by a meal, were compared. 35 subjects performed a 10 km run. After exercise, they ingested nothing (control), a protein/glucose shake (shake) or a combination of white bread and sour milk cheese (food) in a randomized cross over design. Serum glucose (n = 35), serum insulin (n = 35), serum creatine kinase (n = 15) and myoglobin (n = 15), hematologic parameters, cortisol (n = 35), inflammation markers (n = 27) and leg strength (n = 15) as a functional marker were measured. Insulin secretion was significantly stimulated by shake and food. In contrast, only shake resulted in an increase of blood glucose. Food resulted in a decrease of pro, and stimulation of anti-inflammatory serum markers. The exercise induced skeletal muscle damage, indicated by serum creatine kinase and myoglobin, and exercise induced loss of leg strength was decreased by shake and food. Our data indicate that uptake of protein and carbohydrate by shake or food reduces exercise induced skeletal muscle damage and has pro-regenerative effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Body Protein Oxidation Unaffected after a Protein Restricted Diet in Healthy Young Males
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010115 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Protein oxidation may play a role in the balance between anabolism and catabolism. We assessed the effect of a protein restricted diet on protein oxidation as a possible reflection of whole body protein metabolism. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 3 years) were instructed [...] Read more.
Protein oxidation may play a role in the balance between anabolism and catabolism. We assessed the effect of a protein restricted diet on protein oxidation as a possible reflection of whole body protein metabolism. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 3 years) were instructed to use a 4-day isocaloric protein restricted diet (0.25 g protein/kg body weight/day). Their habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 4-day food diary. After an overnight fast, a 30 g 13C-milk protein test drink was administered, followed by 330 min breath sample collection. Protein oxidation was measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. To assess actual change in protein intake from 24-h urea excretion, 24-h urine was collected. During the 4-day protein restricted diet, the urinary urea:creatinine ratio decreased by 56 ± 9%, which is comparable to a protein intake of ~0.65 g protein/kg body weight/day. After the protein restricted diet, 30.5 ± 7.3% of the 30 g 13C-milk protein was oxidized over 330 min, compared to 31.5 ± 6.4% (NS) after the subject’s habitual diet (1.3 ± 0.3 g protein/kg body weight/day). A large range in the effect of the diet on protein oxidation (−43.2% vs. +44.0%) was observed. The residual standard deviation of the measurements was very small (0.601 ± 0.167). This suggests that in healthy males, protein oxidation is unaffected after a protein restricted diet. It is uncertain how important the role of fluctuations in short-term protein oxidation is within whole body protein metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets are well known. However, data is sparse in terms of their appropriateness for the special nutritional demands of endurance runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the health status of vegetarian (VER) and [...] Read more.
Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets are well known. However, data is sparse in terms of their appropriateness for the special nutritional demands of endurance runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the health status of vegetarian (VER) and vegan endurance runners (VGR) and compare it to omnivorous endurance runners (OR). A total of 245 female and male recreational runners completed an online survey. Health status was assessed by measuring health-related indicators (body weight, mental health, chronic diseases, and hypersensitivity reactions, medication intake) and health-related behavior (smoking habits, supplement intake, food choice, healthcare utilization). Data analysis was performed by using non-parametric ANOVA and MANOVA. There were 109 OR, 45 VER and 91 VGR. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were determined for the following findings: (i) body weight for VER and VGR was less than for OR, (ii) VGR had highest food choice scores, and (iii) VGR reported the lowest prevalences of allergies. There was no association (p > 0.05) between diet and mental health, medication intake, smoking habits, supplement intake, and healthcare utilization. These findings support the notion that adhering to vegetarian kinds of diet, in particular to a vegan diet, is associated with a good health status and, thus, at least an equal alternative to an omnivorous diet for endurance runners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiometabolic Health in Relation to Lifestyle and Body Weight Changes 3–8 Years Earlier
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121953 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The degree to which individuals change their lifestyle in response to interventions differs and this variation could affect cardiometabolic health. We examined if changes in dietary intake, physical activity and weight of obese infertile women during the first six months of the LIFEstyle [...] Read more.
The degree to which individuals change their lifestyle in response to interventions differs and this variation could affect cardiometabolic health. We examined if changes in dietary intake, physical activity and weight of obese infertile women during the first six months of the LIFEstyle trial were associated with cardiometabolic health 3–8 years later (N = 50–78). Lifestyle was assessed using questionnaires and weight was measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months after randomization. BMI, blood pressure, body composition, pulse wave velocity, glycemic parameters and lipid profile were assessed 3–8 years after randomization. Decreases in savory and sweet snack intake were associated with lower HOMA-IR 3–8 years later, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for current lifestyle. No other associations between changes in lifestyle or body weight during the first six months after randomization with cardiovascular health 3–8 years later were observed. In conclusion, reductions in snack intake were associated with reduced insulin resistance 3–8 years later, but adjustment for current lifestyle reduced these associations. This indicates that changing lifestyle is an important first step, but maintaining this change is needed for improving cardiometabolic health in the long-term. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exercise and the Timing of Snack Choice: Healthy Snack Choice is Reduced in the Post-Exercise State
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121941 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Acute exercise can induce either a compensatory increase in food intake or a reduction in food intake, which results from appetite suppression in the post-exercise state. The timing of food choice—choosing for immediate or later consumption—has been found to influence the healthfulness of [...] Read more.
Acute exercise can induce either a compensatory increase in food intake or a reduction in food intake, which results from appetite suppression in the post-exercise state. The timing of food choice—choosing for immediate or later consumption—has been found to influence the healthfulness of foods consumed. To examine both of these effects, we tested in our study whether the timing of food choice interacts with exposure to exercise to impact food choices such that choices would differ when made prior to or following an exercise bout. Visitors to a university recreational center were equipped with an accelerometer prior to their habitual workout regime, masking the true study purpose. As a reward, participants were presented with a snack for consumption after workout completion. Participants made their snack choice from either an apple or chocolate brownie after being pseudo-randomly assigned to choose prior to (“before”) or following workout completion (“after”). Complete data were available for 256 participants (54.7% male, 22.1 ± 3.1 years, 24.7 ± 3.7 kg/m2) who exercised 65.3 ± 22.5 min/session. When compared with “before,” the choice of an apple decreased (73.7% vs. 54.6%) and the choices of brownie (13.9% vs. 20.2%) or no snack (12.4% vs. 25.2%) increased in the “after” condition (χ2 = 26.578, p < 0.001). Our results provide support for both compensatory eating and exercise-induced anorexia. More importantly, our findings suggest that the choice of food for post-exercise consumption can be altered through a simple behavioral intervention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Nutrition Education for Overweight/Obese Mother with Stunted Children (NEO-MOM) in Reducing the Double Burden of Malnutrition
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121910 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
(1) Background: In households experiencing the double burden of malnutrition, stunted children are in a better position for growth improvement when parents are able to direct their resources to support nutrition requirements. This study assesses the effectiveness of maternal nutrition education to reduce [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In households experiencing the double burden of malnutrition, stunted children are in a better position for growth improvement when parents are able to direct their resources to support nutrition requirements. This study assesses the effectiveness of maternal nutrition education to reduce child stunting. (2) Methods: This was a Randomized Controlled Trial involving pairs of overweight/obese mothers with stunted children aged 2 to 5 years old in urban Indonesia. Methods: Seventy-one mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to receive either a 12-week nutrition education or printed educational materials. Mixed factorial ANOVA was used to test for between-group differences over time in relation to child’s height, weight, maternal self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and caloric intake. (3) Results: Across groups, there was a significant effect of time on child height and weight but no significant differences were observed between-groups. Maternal self-efficacy, outcome expectations in providing animal protein for the children (p-value = 0.025) and mother’s total caloric intake (p-value = 0.017) favored the intervention group over the comparison group. (4) Conclusions: The behavioral intervention produced strong improvement in maternal self-efficacy to engage in physical activity, eat fruits and vegetables and to provide children with growth-promoting animal protein, but did not significantly influence child height gain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Sports Participation and Diet with Motor Competence in Austrian Middle School Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121837 - 29 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical activity and diet are important contributors to overall health and development in adolescents. There remains, however, limited research on the combined association of sports participation and dietary pattern on motor competence, which is crucial for an active lifestyle during and beyond adolescence. [...] Read more.
Physical activity and diet are important contributors to overall health and development in adolescents. There remains, however, limited research on the combined association of sports participation and dietary pattern on motor competence, which is crucial for an active lifestyle during and beyond adolescence. The present study, therefore, examined the association between sports participation, dietary pattern, and motor competence in 165 middle school students (55% male) between 11 and 14 years of age. Body weight and height were measured, and motor competence was determined via the German motor test during regular Physical Education (PE). Further, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and reported their engagement in club sports. Of the total sample 20% were overweight/obese and 49% reported participation in club sports, with no differences between boys and girls. Interaction effects of sports participation and dietary pattern on motor competence were limited, but sports participation and healthy diet were independently associated with higher motor performance. Healthy dietary choices, along with participation in club sports, therefore, should be promoted in adolescents in order to facilitate motor development. As adolescence is a crucial time for the establishment of lifelong behaviors, such efforts could facilitate a healthy lifestyle throughout adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regular Practice of Moderate Physical Activity by Older Adults Ameliorates Their Anti-Inflammatory Status
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111780 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A chronic inflammatory state is a major characteristic of the aging process, and physical activity is proposed as a key component for healthy aging. Our aim was to evaluate the body composition, hypertension, lipid profile, and inflammatory status of older adults, and these [...] Read more.
A chronic inflammatory state is a major characteristic of the aging process, and physical activity is proposed as a key component for healthy aging. Our aim was to evaluate the body composition, hypertension, lipid profile, and inflammatory status of older adults, and these factors’ association with physical activity. A total of 116 elderly volunteers were categorized into terciles of quantitative metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Subjects in the first and third terciles were defined as sedentary and active subjects, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, hemograms, and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma or peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). The active groups exercised more than their sedentary counterparts. The practice of physical activity was accompanied by lower weight, fat mass, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure when compared to a more sedentary life-style. Physical activity also lowered the haematocrit and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The practice of exercise induced a decrease in the IL-6 circulating levels and the TLR2 protein levels in PBMCs, while the expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 was activated in active subjects. The regular practice of physical activity exerts beneficial effects on body composition and the anti-inflammatory status of old people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Childhood Experiences and Sporting Event Visitors’ Preference for Unhealthy versus Healthy Foods: Priming the Route to Obesity?
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111670 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
To date, there is little knowledge about how experiences in childhood frame adults’ food and drink consumption patterns in the context of attending sporting events as spectators. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore the childhood memories of adults when they [...] Read more.
To date, there is little knowledge about how experiences in childhood frame adults’ food and drink consumption patterns in the context of attending sporting events as spectators. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore the childhood memories of adults when they visited sporting events and find out whether and why this particular setting makes individuals indulge in unhealthy food. The study comprises two components: Study 1 and Study 2. In Study 1, 30 individuals recalled their childhood experiences of sport stadium visits at the age of ten years or younger. Inductive coding of the stories revealed that on-site enjoyment is an important factor that may lead to unhealthy food consumption. In Study 2 (n = 240), the effect of enjoyment on the intentions to eat unhealthy versus healthy food at sporting events was tested empirically and contrasted with two other leisure-time activities. The results of the experiment revealed that it is not enjoyment, but the visit to sporting or music events (versus a flea market) that increased the preference for unhealthy versus healthy foods. Implications to decrease (increase) the preference for unhealthy (healthy) food in these particular settings against the background of childhood experiences can be drawn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise Significantly Impact Physical Performance, Body Composition, Blood Lipids, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Male Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081109 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with [...] Read more.
Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Behaviour Change in a Multi-Component Telemonitoring Intervention for Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081062 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Optimal diet quality and physical activity levels are essential for healthy ageing. This study evaluated the effects of a multi-component telemonitoring intervention on behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity in older adults, and assessed the mediating role of these determinants and [...] Read more.
Optimal diet quality and physical activity levels are essential for healthy ageing. This study evaluated the effects of a multi-component telemonitoring intervention on behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity in older adults, and assessed the mediating role of these determinants and two behaviour change techniques in the intervention’s effects. A non-randomised controlled design was used including 214 participants (average age 80 years) who were allocated to the intervention or control group based on municipality. The six-month intervention consisted of self-measurements of nutritional outcomes and physical activity, education, and follow-up by a nurse. The control group received regular care. Measurements took place at baseline, after 4.5 months and at the end of the study. The intervention increased self-monitoring and improved knowledge and perceived behavioural control for physical activity. Increased self-monitoring mediated the intervention’s effect on diet quality, fruit intake, and saturated fatty acids intake. Improved knowledge mediated the effect on protein intake. Concluding, this intervention led to improvements in behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity. The role of the hypothesised mediators was limited. Insight into these mechanisms of impact provides directions for future development of nutritional eHealth interventions for older adults, in which self-monitoring may be a promising behaviour change technique. More research is necessary into how behaviour change is established in telemonitoring interventions for older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Promoting Healthy Diet, Physical Activity, and Life-Skills in High School Athletes: Results from the WAVE Ripples for Change Childhood Obesity Prevention Two-Year Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070947 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants (n = 388; females = 58%; Latino = 38%; 15.3 ± 1.1 years, 38% National School Breakfast/Lunch Program) were assigned to either an intervention (n = 278; 9 schools) or comparison group (n = 110; 4 schools) based on geographical location. Pre/post intervention assessment of diet was done using Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener, and daily steps was done using the Fitbit-Zip. Groups were compared over-time for mean changes (post-pre) in fruit/vegetables (FV), saturated fat (SF), added sugar, and PA (daily steps, moderate-to-vigorous PA) using analysis of covariance. The two-year intervention decreased mean added sugar intake (−12.1 g/day, CI (7.4, 16.8), p = 0.02); there were no differences in groups for FV or SF intake (p = 0.89). For both groups, PA was significantly higher in-soccer (9937 steps/day) vs. out-of-soccer season (8117 steps/day), emphasizing the contribution of organized sports to youth daily PA. At baseline, Latino youth had significantly higher added sugar intake (+14 g/day, p < 0.01) than non-Latinos. Targeting active youth in a diet/PA intervention improves diet, but out of soccer season youth need engagement to maintain PA (200). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Disparate Habitual Physical Activity and Dietary Intake Profiles of Elderly Men with Low and Elevated Systemic Inflammation
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050566 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and [...] Read more.
The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and musculoskeletal performance among community-dwelling elderly men with low and elevated systemic inflammation. Nonsarcopenic older men free of chronic diseases were grouped as ‘low’ (LSI: n = 17; 68.2 ± 2.6 years; hs-CRP: <1 mg/L) or ‘elevated’ (ESI: n = 17; 68.7 ± 3.0 years; hs-CRP: >1 mg/L) systemic inflammation according to their serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). All participants were assessed for body composition via Dual Emission X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), physical performance using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and handgrip strength, daily PA using accelerometry, and daily macro- and micronutrient intake. ESI was characterized by a 2-fold greater hs-CRP value than LSI (p < 0.01). The two groups were comparable in terms of body composition, but LSI displayed higher physical performance (p < 0.05), daily PA (step count/day and time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were greater by 30% and 42%, respectively, p < 0.05), and daily intake of the antioxidant vitamins A (6590.7 vs. 4701.8 IU/day, p < 0.05), C (120.0 vs. 77.3 mg/day, p < 0.05), and E (10.0 vs. 7.5 mg/day, p < 0.05) compared to ESI. Moreover, daily intake of vitamin A was inversely correlated with levels of hs-CRP (r = −0.39, p = 0.035). These results provide evidence that elderly men characterized by low levels of systemic inflammation are more physically active, spend more time in MVPA, and receive higher amounts of antioxidant vitamins compared to those with increased systemic inflammation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Physical Activity and Nutrition: Two Promising Strategies for Telomere Maintenance?
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121942 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
As the world demographic structure is getting older, highlighting strategies to counteract age-related diseases is a major public health concern. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that serve as guardians of genome stability by ensuring protection against both cell death and senescence. A hallmark of [...] Read more.
As the world demographic structure is getting older, highlighting strategies to counteract age-related diseases is a major public health concern. Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that serve as guardians of genome stability by ensuring protection against both cell death and senescence. A hallmark of biological aging, telomere health is determined throughout the lifespan by a combination of both genetic and non-genetic influences. This review summarizes data from recently published studies looking at the effect of lifestyle variables such as nutrition and physical activity on telomere dynamics. Full article
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