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Special Issue "Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Karsten Koehler

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Website | E-Mail
Interests: caloric restriction; metabolic adaptations; energy balance; bone health
Guest Editor
Dr. Clemens Drenowatz

Division of Physical Education, University of Education Upper Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy balance; weight management; motor competence; physical activity in youth

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts that focus on the integration of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions on outcomes related to lifelong health. Manuscripts for consideration in this Special Issue can either describe original research or review the scientific literature. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions that combine dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions are also welcomed.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Impact of diet and exercise interventions on energy balance, body weight control, and obesity
  • Dietary manipulations that augment the therapeutic effect of physical activity and exercise on diseases linked to declines in muscle mass and function (e.g., sarcopenia, cachexia, disuse atrophy)
  • Combination of diet and exercise approaches to improve diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other metabolic and/or endocrine conditions
  • Interventions utilizing diet and exercise to maximize bone health and/or prevent osteoporosis
  • Biomarkers of physical activity and dietary intake
  • Impact of physical activity and exercise on nutrient status
  • Anti-ageing potential of diet and exercise interventions
Dr. Karsten Koehler
Dr. Clemens Drenowatz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Balance
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Muscle Mass
  • Muscle Function
  • Weight Loss
  • Weight Maintenance
  • Biomarkers

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Childhood Experiences and Sporting Event Visitors’ Preference for Unhealthy versus Healthy Foods: Priming the Route to Obesity?
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111670
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
To date, there is little knowledge about how experiences in childhood frame adults’ food and drink consumption patterns in the context of attending sporting events as spectators. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore the childhood memories of adults when they
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To date, there is little knowledge about how experiences in childhood frame adults’ food and drink consumption patterns in the context of attending sporting events as spectators. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore the childhood memories of adults when they visited sporting events and find out whether and why this particular setting makes individuals indulge in unhealthy food. The study comprises two components: Study 1 and Study 2. In Study 1, 30 individuals recalled their childhood experiences of sport stadium visits at the age of ten years or younger. Inductive coding of the stories revealed that on-site enjoyment is an important factor that may lead to unhealthy food consumption. In Study 2 (n = 240), the effect of enjoyment on the intentions to eat unhealthy versus healthy food at sporting events was tested empirically and contrasted with two other leisure-time activities. The results of the experiment revealed that it is not enjoyment, but the visit to sporting or music events (versus a flea market) that increased the preference for unhealthy versus healthy foods. Implications to decrease (increase) the preference for unhealthy (healthy) food in these particular settings against the background of childhood experiences can be drawn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise Significantly Impact Physical Performance, Body Composition, Blood Lipids, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Male Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081109
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with
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Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Behaviour Change in a Multi-Component Telemonitoring Intervention for Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081062
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Optimal diet quality and physical activity levels are essential for healthy ageing. This study evaluated the effects of a multi-component telemonitoring intervention on behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity in older adults, and assessed the mediating role of these determinants and
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Optimal diet quality and physical activity levels are essential for healthy ageing. This study evaluated the effects of a multi-component telemonitoring intervention on behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity in older adults, and assessed the mediating role of these determinants and two behaviour change techniques in the intervention’s effects. A non-randomised controlled design was used including 214 participants (average age 80 years) who were allocated to the intervention or control group based on municipality. The six-month intervention consisted of self-measurements of nutritional outcomes and physical activity, education, and follow-up by a nurse. The control group received regular care. Measurements took place at baseline, after 4.5 months and at the end of the study. The intervention increased self-monitoring and improved knowledge and perceived behavioural control for physical activity. Increased self-monitoring mediated the intervention’s effect on diet quality, fruit intake, and saturated fatty acids intake. Improved knowledge mediated the effect on protein intake. Concluding, this intervention led to improvements in behavioural determinants of diet quality and physical activity. The role of the hypothesised mediators was limited. Insight into these mechanisms of impact provides directions for future development of nutritional eHealth interventions for older adults, in which self-monitoring may be a promising behaviour change technique. More research is necessary into how behaviour change is established in telemonitoring interventions for older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Promoting Healthy Diet, Physical Activity, and Life-Skills in High School Athletes: Results from the WAVE Ripples for Change Childhood Obesity Prevention Two-Year Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070947
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 22 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants
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The purpose of this study was to compare changes in diet and daily physical activity (PA) in high school (HS) soccer players who participated in either a two-year obesity prevention intervention or comparison group, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Participants (n = 388; females = 58%; Latino = 38%; 15.3 ± 1.1 years, 38% National School Breakfast/Lunch Program) were assigned to either an intervention (n = 278; 9 schools) or comparison group (n = 110; 4 schools) based on geographical location. Pre/post intervention assessment of diet was done using Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener, and daily steps was done using the Fitbit-Zip. Groups were compared over-time for mean changes (post-pre) in fruit/vegetables (FV), saturated fat (SF), added sugar, and PA (daily steps, moderate-to-vigorous PA) using analysis of covariance. The two-year intervention decreased mean added sugar intake (−12.1 g/day, CI (7.4, 16.8), p = 0.02); there were no differences in groups for FV or SF intake (p = 0.89). For both groups, PA was significantly higher in-soccer (9937 steps/day) vs. out-of-soccer season (8117 steps/day), emphasizing the contribution of organized sports to youth daily PA. At baseline, Latino youth had significantly higher added sugar intake (+14 g/day, p < 0.01) than non-Latinos. Targeting active youth in a diet/PA intervention improves diet, but out of soccer season youth need engagement to maintain PA (200). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disparate Habitual Physical Activity and Dietary Intake Profiles of Elderly Men with Low and Elevated Systemic Inflammation
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050566
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and
[...] Read more.
The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and musculoskeletal performance among community-dwelling elderly men with low and elevated systemic inflammation. Nonsarcopenic older men free of chronic diseases were grouped as ‘low’ (LSI: n = 17; 68.2 ± 2.6 years; hs-CRP: <1 mg/L) or ‘elevated’ (ESI: n = 17; 68.7 ± 3.0 years; hs-CRP: >1 mg/L) systemic inflammation according to their serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). All participants were assessed for body composition via Dual Emission X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), physical performance using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and handgrip strength, daily PA using accelerometry, and daily macro- and micronutrient intake. ESI was characterized by a 2-fold greater hs-CRP value than LSI (p < 0.01). The two groups were comparable in terms of body composition, but LSI displayed higher physical performance (p < 0.05), daily PA (step count/day and time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were greater by 30% and 42%, respectively, p < 0.05), and daily intake of the antioxidant vitamins A (6590.7 vs. 4701.8 IU/day, p < 0.05), C (120.0 vs. 77.3 mg/day, p < 0.05), and E (10.0 vs. 7.5 mg/day, p < 0.05) compared to ESI. Moreover, daily intake of vitamin A was inversely correlated with levels of hs-CRP (r = −0.39, p = 0.035). These results provide evidence that elderly men characterized by low levels of systemic inflammation are more physically active, spend more time in MVPA, and receive higher amounts of antioxidant vitamins compared to those with increased systemic inflammation. Full article
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