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Article

Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)

1
Center for Research and Knowledge Management, Pedagogical University Tyrol, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Gießen, 35390 Gießen, Germany
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ITEG, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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AdventureV & change2V, 6135 Stans, Austria
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Institute of Nutrition, University of Gießen, 35390 Gießen, Germany
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Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets are well known. However, data is sparse in terms of their appropriateness for the special nutritional demands of endurance runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the health status of vegetarian (VER) and vegan endurance runners (VGR) and compare it to omnivorous endurance runners (OR). A total of 245 female and male recreational runners completed an online survey. Health status was assessed by measuring health-related indicators (body weight, mental health, chronic diseases, and hypersensitivity reactions, medication intake) and health-related behavior (smoking habits, supplement intake, food choice, healthcare utilization). Data analysis was performed by using non-parametric ANOVA and MANOVA. There were 109 OR, 45 VER and 91 VGR. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were determined for the following findings: (i) body weight for VER and VGR was less than for OR, (ii) VGR had highest food choice scores, and (iii) VGR reported the lowest prevalences of allergies. There was no association (p > 0.05) between diet and mental health, medication intake, smoking habits, supplement intake, and healthcare utilization. These findings support the notion that adhering to vegetarian kinds of diet, in particular to a vegan diet, is associated with a good health status and, thus, at least an equal alternative to an omnivorous diet for endurance runners. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetarian; vegan; half-marathon; marathon; running; health conscious; recreational athlete vegetarian; vegan; half-marathon; marathon; running; health conscious; recreational athlete
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wirnitzer, K.; Boldt, P.; Lechleitner, C.; Wirnitzer, G.; Leitzmann, C.; Rosemann, T.; Knechtle, B. Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2). Nutrients 2019, 11, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029

AMA Style

Wirnitzer K, Boldt P, Lechleitner C, Wirnitzer G, Leitzmann C, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2). Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):29. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wirnitzer, Katharina, Patrick Boldt, Christoph Lechleitner, Gerold Wirnitzer, Claus Leitzmann, Thomas Rosemann, and Beat Knechtle. 2019. "Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029

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