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Systems Epidemiology: A New Direction in Nutrition and Chronic Disease Research

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 6055

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutrition and Food Safety Research, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
2. Global Health Institute, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China
Interests: sport nutrition; chronic disease
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety Research, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
Interests: nutrition epidemiology; micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy; population nutrition evaluation

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Guest Editor
School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Interests: preventions and management of obesity, chronic disease; mental disorders

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Guest Editor
Alive & Thrive East Asia Pacific, FHI 360, Hanoi 11022, Vietnam
Interests: chronic disease nutrition; maternal nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) are the largest contributors to deaths and burdens in the world. The intricate nature of the etiology of NCDs calls for a transformation in epidemiological approaches. While conventional techniques focus on individual risk factors and their associations with disease outcomes, systems epidemiology presents a more all-encompassing and cohesive framework that considers the interrelationships between numerous biological, lifestyle, environmental, and social factors. By incorporating data from a wide range of sources, including genomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, and social networks, systems epidemiology aims to build a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying causes of NCDs and identify new targets for prevention and treatment.

This Special Issue will bring together prominent researchers in systems epidemiology and present discussions of the applications of their methods and their implications for nutrition and NCDs. These papers will showcase novel computational methods for integrating multiple data sources and innovative approaches to analyzing complex networks of biological and social interactions. These developments will contribute to shaping the future of these fields.

Dr. Xiaomin Sun
Dr. Yue Cheng
Dr. Mi Xiang
Dr. Tuan T Nguyen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-communicable chronic diseases
  • nutritional epidemiology
  • cohort nutrition
  • aging
  • health management
  • digital health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
The Association between Tooth Loss and Insulin Resistance Mediated by Diet Quality and Systemic Immunoinflammatory Index
by Yaqi Hao, Shaoru Li, Shaojie Dong and Lin Niu
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 5008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15235008 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
(1) Background: Both tooth loss and diabetes have high global prevalence, and both have a significant influence on patients’ general health and quality of life. Previous research has indicated a possible connection between tooth loss and diabetes, but it has been unclear whether [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Both tooth loss and diabetes have high global prevalence, and both have a significant influence on patients’ general health and quality of life. Previous research has indicated a possible connection between tooth loss and diabetes, but it has been unclear whether tooth loss has an effect on the development of diabetes and how it affects it. We aim to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and tooth loss and examine how the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) level and diet quality mediate it. (2) Methods: The cross-sectional study data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After describing and comparing baseline data, we used regression models to evaluate the relationship between IR and tooth loss, diet quality and tooth loss and IR, SII and tooth loss and IR. Furthermore, we applied bootstrapping to test the mediation effect of diet quality and SII between tooth loss and IR. Diet quality is reflected by the HEI (Healthy Eating Index)-2015 score. (3) Results: The total number of subjects included was 8197, with 3861 individuals belonging to the IR group (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) and 4336 in the non-IR group (HOMA-IR < 2.5). In the model with all covariates adjusted, tooth loss in the fourth quartile was found to be positively correlated with an increase in HOMA-IR (OR = 1.301; 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.102, 1.537]; p < 0.001) compared to the first quartile; tooth loss in the fourth quartile correlated with the HEI-2015 score compared to the first quantile (β = −0.121, 95% CI = [−4.839, −2.974], p < 0.001); and the highest number of tooth loss was found to have a significant effect on SII (β = 0.032; 95%CI = [1.777, 47.448]; p < 0.05). Compared to average diet quality, best diet quality acts as a safeguard against elevated HOMA-IR (OR = 0.776; 95% CI = [0.641, 0.939]; p < 0.01); inadequate diet quality is a risk factor (OR = 1.267; 95%CI = [1.138, 1.411]; p < 0.001) conversely. Meanwhile, it can be seen that compared with the first quantile of SII, the highest score is significantly correlated with the higher incidence of IR (OR = 1.363; 95%CI = [1.179, 1.575]; p < 0.001). Diet quality and SII played a partial mediating role in the relationship between HOMA-IR and tooth loss, and the mediating effect ratio for the total effect value was 4.731% and 4.576%, respectively. The mediating effect of SII and diet quality in the association of the relationship between HOMA-IR and tooth loss both was 0.003 (95%CI = [0.001, 0.004]). (4) Conclusions: Our study revealed the relationship between IR and tooth loss, and further explored the mediating role of SII and diet quality between the number of missing teeth and IR, emphasizing that improving diet quality and reducing SII can effectively prevent and treat IR and related diseases. It provides new theoretical support for the study of IR mechanisms and new ideas and approaches to deal with related diseases. Full article
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15 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Dietary Patterns and Circadian Syndrome among Adults Attending NHANES 2005–2016
by Zoha Akbar and Zumin Shi
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153396 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the associations of dietary patterns and circadian syndrome (CircS). Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2016 were analyzed (n = 10,486). Factor analysis was used to construct dietary patterns based on two 24 h [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the associations of dietary patterns and circadian syndrome (CircS). Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2016 were analyzed (n = 10,486). Factor analysis was used to construct dietary patterns based on two 24 h food recalls. CircS was defined based on components of the metabolic syndrome, with the addition of short sleep and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations. Two major dietary patterns were identified. The Western dietary pattern had high loadings of refined grains, solid fats, added sugars, and red and cured meats, while the prudent pattern was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, whole grains, oils, nuts, and seeds. The prevalence of CircS was 41.3%. Comparing extreme quartiles of intake, the odds ratios (OR) for having CircS were 1.96 (95%CI 1.53–2.53) and 0.71 (95%CI 0.58–0.86) for the Western pattern and prudent pattern, respectively. The association between the Western dietary pattern and CircS was stronger among men (OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.48–2.85) and those with low income (OR = 1.94; 95%CI 1.27–2.96) and high education (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.90–6.04). The Western dietary pattern was associated with a higher likelihood of having CircS, while the prudent pattern was inversely associated with CircS. Full article
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19 pages, 4117 KiB  
Article
Effects of Endurance Exercise and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Resistance and Plasma Lipidome in Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
by Xiaomin Sun, Tao Yan, Zhongying Li, Sirui Zhou, Wen Peng, Wei Cui, Jing Xu, Zhen-Bo Cao, Lin Shi and Youfa Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133027 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
(1) Background: We investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention with or without vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and the plasma lipidome of participants with type 2 diabetes. We further explored whether the effects of the intervention on glycemic parameters could [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention with or without vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and the plasma lipidome of participants with type 2 diabetes. We further explored whether the effects of the intervention on glycemic parameters could be associated with the baseline lipidome. (2) Methods: Sixty-one participants were randomly allocated to control (Con), exercise (EX), vitamin D (VD), and EX + VD groups. Multiple glycemic and anthropometric parameters were evaluated before and after intervention. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was the primary outcome. The plasma lipidome was analyzed before, after, and at an additional 12-week follow-up. Machine learning was applied to establish prediction models for responsiveness of glycemic control. (3) Results: Our interventions failed to improve the HOMA-IR index while fasting glucose was reduced in the EX + VD group (change%, −11.9%; effect size, 0.65; p < 0.05). Both EX and VD interventions altered the plasma lipidome, with EX + VD intervention considerably affecting levels of lyso-phosphatidylcholines and triglycerols containing long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. Such effects could last until 12 weeks after intervention. Notably, there was high inter-individual variability in glycemic parameters including HOMA-IR in response to the interventions, which could be predicted with great accuracy using an optimal panel of baseline lipid predictors alone or in combination with clinical indices, as assessed by an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of over 0.9. (4) Conclusions: Although substantial alterations were observed in the plasma lipidome related to glycemic control, our intervention failed to improve HOMA-IR scores, which may have been predominately due to the large inter-individual variability in responses. Basal plasma lipid levels could potentially predict an individual’s response to intervention, highlighting the necessity of personalized nutrition. Full article
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