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Article

Effect of an Antenatal Lifestyle Intervention on Dietary Inflammatory Index and Its Associations with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the PEARS Trial

1
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland
2
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
3
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina and Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
4
Department of Midwifery, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Megumi Haruna
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082798
Received: 16 July 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 15 August 2021
We investigated the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet and physical activity on energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and explored its relationship with maternal and child health in women with overweight and obesity. This was a secondary analysis of 434 mother−child pairs from the Pregnancy Exercise and Nutrition Study (PEARS) trial in Dublin, Ireland. E-DIITM scores were calculated for early (10–16 weeks) and late (28 weeks) pregnancy. Outcomes included lipids, inflammation markers, insulin resistance, mode of delivery, infant size, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. T-tests were used to assess changes in E-DIITM. Chi-square, correlations, and multiple regression were employed to investigate relationships with outcomes. The mean (SD) age of participants was 32.45 (4.29) years with median (IQR) BMI 28.25 (26.70, 31.34) kg/m2. There was no change in E-DIITM in the controls (−0.14 (1.19) vs. −0.07 (1.09), p = 0.465) but E-DIITM reduced by 10% after the intervention (0.01 (1.07) vs −0.75 (1.05), p < 0.001). No associations were found between early pregnancy E-DIITM and maternal and child outcomes, except for increased odds of adverse cardiometabolic phenotype in women who delivered male (OR = 2.29, p = 0.010) but not female infants (OR = 0.99, p = 0.960). A low-GI antenatal intervention can reduce the inflammatory potential of diets. Sex differences should be explored further in future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; glycaemic index; intervention; antenatal; lifestyle; obesity; nutrition dietary inflammatory index; glycaemic index; intervention; antenatal; lifestyle; obesity; nutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Killeen, S.L.; Phillips, C.M.; Delahunt, A.; Yelverton, C.A.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J.R.; Kennelly, M.A.; Cronin, M.; Mehegan, J.; McAuliffe, F.M. Effect of an Antenatal Lifestyle Intervention on Dietary Inflammatory Index and Its Associations with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the PEARS Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2798. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082798

AMA Style

Killeen SL, Phillips CM, Delahunt A, Yelverton CA, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Kennelly MA, Cronin M, Mehegan J, McAuliffe FM. Effect of an Antenatal Lifestyle Intervention on Dietary Inflammatory Index and Its Associations with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the PEARS Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2798. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Killeen, Sarah L., Catherine M. Phillips, Anna Delahunt, Cara A. Yelverton, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hébert, Maria A. Kennelly, Martina Cronin, John Mehegan, and Fionnuala M. McAuliffe 2021. "Effect of an Antenatal Lifestyle Intervention on Dietary Inflammatory Index and Its Associations with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the PEARS Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2798. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082798

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