Gene–Diet Interaction Analyses in Chronic Non-contagious Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 June 2024 | Viewed by 5866

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 14049-900, Brazil
Interests: nutrigenomics; genetic toxicology; nutraceutics; epigenetics; DNA methylation; DNA damage and cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet plays a very important role in promoting human health, especially in cases of non-contagious diseases. Studies have shown that dietary bioactive compounds interact with molecular targets in transcriptome, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics studies. Moreover, the mechanisms of gene–diet interaction in the development and treatment of chronic non-contagious diseases have not yet been fully elucidated. The experimental, pre-clinical and clinical results of the gene–diet interaction can contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and to expand strategies for promoting health through healthy foods.

Dr. Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • therapeutic nutrition
  • food science
  • metabolism
  • nutraceutics
  • non-communicable diseases
  • diet

Published Papers (4 papers)

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33 pages, 7146 KiB  
Article
Effects of Soy Protein Isolate on Fragile X Phenotypes in Mice
by Pamela R. Westmark, Greg Lyon, Alejandra Gutierrez, Brynne Boeck, Olivia Van Hammond, Nathan Ripp, Nicole Arianne Pagan-Torres, James Brower, Patrice K. Held, Cameron Scarlett and Cara J. Westmark
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020284 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Obesity is a pediatric epidemic that is more prevalent in children with developmental disabilities. We hypothesize that soy protein-based diets increase weight gain and alter neurobehavioral outcomes. Our objective herein was to test matched casein- and soy protein-based purified ingredient diets in a [...] Read more.
Obesity is a pediatric epidemic that is more prevalent in children with developmental disabilities. We hypothesize that soy protein-based diets increase weight gain and alter neurobehavioral outcomes. Our objective herein was to test matched casein- and soy protein-based purified ingredient diets in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, Fmr1KO mice. The experimental methods included assessment of growth; 24-7 activity levels; motor coordination; learning and memory; blood-based amino acid, phytoestrogen and glucose levels; and organ weights. The primary outcome measure was body weight. We find increased body weight in male Fmr1KO from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P224, male wild type (WT) from P32–P39, female Fmr1KO from P6–P18 and P168–P224, and female Fmr1HET from P9–P18 as a function of soy. Activity at the beginning of the light and dark cycles increased in female Fmr1HET and Fmr1KO mice fed soy. We did not find significant differences in rotarod or passive avoidance behavior as a function of genotype or diet. Several blood-based amino acids and phytoestrogens were significantly altered in response to soy. Liver weight was increased in WT and adipose tissue in Fmr1KO mice fed soy. Activity levels at the beginning of the light cycle and testes weight were greater in Fmr1KO versus WT males irrespective of diet. DEXA analysis at 8-months-old indicated increased fat mass and total body area in Fmr1KO females and lean mass and bone mineral density in Fmr1KO males fed soy. Overall, dietary consumption of soy protein isolate by C57BL/6J mice caused increased growth, which could be attributed to increased lean mass in males and fat mass in females. There were sex-specific differences with more pronounced effects in Fmr1KO versus WT and in males versus females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interaction Analyses in Chronic Non-contagious Diseases)
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17 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
TT Genotype of TLR4 rs1928295 Is a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in Han Chinese Children Aged 7–12 Years and Can Interact with Dietary Patterns to Affect the Incidence of Central Obesity and Lipid Profile, Systolic Blood Pressure Levels
by Qi Zhu, Ben Qian, Kun Xue, Hongwei Guo, Rui Liang, Jinlong Wu, Qisu Wu and Geyi Zhou
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153441 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Previous studies have found that TLR4 rs1928295 polymorphism is associated with Body Mass Index in European and American Indian adults. This study evaluates the relationship between this locus polymorphism, obesity-related parameters and dietary patterns in Chinese Han Children. A total of 798 children aged [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that TLR4 rs1928295 polymorphism is associated with Body Mass Index in European and American Indian adults. This study evaluates the relationship between this locus polymorphism, obesity-related parameters and dietary patterns in Chinese Han Children. A total of 798 children aged 7–12 years were included in this cross-sectional study. An improved Multiple Ligase Detection Reaction was used for genotyping. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component factor analysis. The overweight/obesity rate of the TT genotype was greater than those of the CC/CT genotype (p = 0.032 and 0.048 in boys and girls, respectively). Boys of the TT genotype could interact with protein and cholesterol intake to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (p = 0.02, 0.015, respectively), while girls of the TT genotype could interact with total energy intake to increase triglyceride (TG) (p = 0.018) levels. Boys predisposed to a healthy balance dietary pattern (HBDP) and girls predisposed to an egg/fruit/fish dietary pattern (EFDP) were significantly associated with lower rates of central obesity (p = 0.045, 0.028). Boys carrying the TT genotype and predisposed to animal food dietary pattern (AFDP) had a higher level of low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.017) and systolic pressure (p = 0.044). Our results indicated that the TT genotype of TLR4 rs1928295 is a potential risk factor for obesity in Chinese Han children and is associated with dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interaction Analyses in Chronic Non-contagious Diseases)
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18 pages, 6103 KiB  
Article
Sulforaphane Combined with Vitamin D Induces Cytotoxicity Mediated by Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, Autophagy, and JNK/MAPK Pathway Modulation in Human Prostate Tumor Cells
by Katiuska Tuttis, Ana Rita Thomazela Machado, Patrick Wellington da Silva Santos and Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2742; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122742 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Prostate cancer ranks second in incidence worldwide. To date, there are no available therapies to effectively treat advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Sulforaphane and vitamin D alone are promising anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo, but their low bioavailability has limited their [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer ranks second in incidence worldwide. To date, there are no available therapies to effectively treat advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Sulforaphane and vitamin D alone are promising anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo, but their low bioavailability has limited their effects in clinical trials. The present study examined whether sulforaphane combined with vitamin D at clinically relevant concentrations improved the cytotoxicity of the compounds alone towards DU145 and PC-3 human prostate tumor cells. To assess the anticancer activity of this combination, we analyzed cell viability (MTT assay), oxidative stress (CM-H2DCFDA), autophagy (fluorescence), DNA damage (comet assay), and protein expression (Western blot). The sulforaphane–vitamin D combination (i) decreased cell viability, induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and autophagy, upregulated BAX, CASP8, CASP3, JNK, and NRF2 expression, and downregulated BCL2 expression in DU145 cells; and (ii) decreased cell viability, increased autophagy and oxidative stress, upregulated BAX and NRF2 expression, and downregulated JNK, CASP8, and BCL2 expression in PC-3 cells. Therefore, sulforaphane and vitamin D in combination have a potential application in prostate cancer therapy, and act to modulate the JNK/MAPK signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interaction Analyses in Chronic Non-contagious Diseases)
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25 pages, 1559 KiB  
Systematic Review
Association of Vitamin D Genetic Risk Score with Noncommunicable Diseases: A Systematic Review
by Heba Almaghrbi, Mashael Al-Shafai, Maha Al-Asmakh and Hiba Bawadi
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184040 - 18 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background and Aims: The genetic risk score (GRS) is an important tool for estimating the total genetic contribution or susceptibility to a certain outcome of interest in an individual, taking into account their genetic risk alleles. This study aims to systematically review the [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: The genetic risk score (GRS) is an important tool for estimating the total genetic contribution or susceptibility to a certain outcome of interest in an individual, taking into account their genetic risk alleles. This study aims to systematically review the association between the GRS of low vitamin D with different noncommunicable diseases/markers. Methods: The article was first registered in PROSPERO CRD42023406929. PubMed and Embase were searched from the time of inception until March 2023 to capture all the literature related to the vitamin D genetic risk score (vD-GRS) in association with noncommunicable diseases. This was performed using comprehensive search terms including “Genetic Risk Score” OR “Genetics risk assessment” OR “Genome-wide risk score” AND “Vitamin D” OR 25(HO)D OR “25-hydroxyvitamin D”. Results: Eleven eligible studies were included in this study. Three studies reported a significant association between vD-GRS and metabolic parameters, including body fat percentage, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting blood glucose. Moreover, colorectal cancer overall mortality and the risk of developing arterial fibrillation were also found to be associated with genetically deprived vitamin D levels. Conclusions: This systematic review highlights the genetic contribution of low-vitamin-D-risk single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) as an accumulative factor associated with different non-communicable diseases/markers, including cancer mortality and the risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases such as arterial fibrillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene–Diet Interaction Analyses in Chronic Non-contagious Diseases)
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