Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 December 2024 | Viewed by 12301

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Resources, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: food nurition and health; oxidation products; dietary habits and metabolic health; nutrients in processed foods

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Resources, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: nutritional diet in prevention metabolic diseases; nutrition and metabolic regulation; functional foods development
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Resources, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: gut nutrition and diseases; probiotics and prebiotics; microbiota; immunity; metabolic health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue “Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health” aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence on the associations between eating habits and metabolic health outcomes across different nutritional factors. We welcome submissions that address a wide range of topics related to this theme, including but not limited to:

  • The impact on metabolic health of changes in nutrients in processed foods under specific dietary habits, including but not limited to protein and lipid oxidation products, glycosylation products, and microbial-involved nutrient composition changes.
  • The effects of probiotics and prebiotics in food on human metabolism under specific dietary habits, including changes in gut microbiota, metabolite changes, and the impact on metabolism under different physiological conditions.
  • Dietary habits and metabolic health, including the effects of dietary habits on the body's metabolism, such as energy restriction, single nutrient restriction, and intermittent fasting.
  • The association between dietary habits and gut-specific microbiota and health risks, and the mitigation and improvement effects of diet and gut microbiota on chronic diseases and their complications.
  • Personalized diet-based interventions to body metabolism regulation.

We invite original research articles, review papers, and meta-analyses that use innovative research methods to explore the complex relationship between dietary habits and health outcomes. We encourage submissions from diverse perspectives, including researchers and practitioners from food science, nutrition, public health, and medicine. By bringing together multidisciplinary perspectives and innovative research methods, this issue aims to advance our understanding of the relationship between dietary habits and health outcomes, promote healthy eating habits, and prevent metabolic diseases. We hope that this Special Issue will stimulate further research and collaboration among researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and stakeholders who are interested in dietary habits and metabolic health.

Prof. Dr. Guowei Le
Dr. Xue Tang
Dr. Bowen Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary habits
  • metabolic health
  • oxidation products
  • probiotics and prebiotics
  • gut microbiota
  • metabolism
  • chronic diseases
  • personalized diet

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health
by Bowen Li, Xue Tang and Guowei Le
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183975 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Dietary habits refer to the long-term dietary patterns and habits that an individual forms and maintains in their daily life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)

Research

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14 pages, 5718 KiB  
Article
Yogurt Alleviates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice through D-Lactate
by Xinru Du, Yongheng Yan, Yufeng Dai and Ruijie Xu
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091395 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of yogurt, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the alleviating properties of yogurt on immunosuppression and proposed the underlying mechanism was related to the metabolite D-lactate. In the healthy mice, we [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of yogurt, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the alleviating properties of yogurt on immunosuppression and proposed the underlying mechanism was related to the metabolite D-lactate. In the healthy mice, we validated the safety of daily yogurt consumption (600 μL) or D-lactate (300 mg/kg). In immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX), we evaluated the immune regulation of yogurt and D-lactate. The result showed that yogurt restored body weight, boosted immune organ index, repaired splenic tissue, recovered the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and increased serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ). Additionally, yogurt enhanced intestinal immune function by restoring the intestinal barrier and upregulating the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Further studies showed that D-lactate alleviated immunosuppression in mice mainly by promoting cellular immunity. D-lactate recovered body weight and organ development, elevated serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ), enhanced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and increased the mRNA level of T-bet in splenic lymphocyte to bolster Th1 differentiation. Finally, CTX is a chemotherapeutic drug, thus, the application of yogurt and D-lactate in the tumor-bearing mouse model was initially explored. The results showed that both yogurt (600 μL) and D-lactate (300 mg/kg) reduced cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression without promoting tumor growth. Overall, this study evaluated the safety, immune efficacy and applicability of yogurt and D-lactate in regulating immunosuppression. It emphasized the potential of yogurt as a functional food for immune regulation, with D-lactate playing a crucial role in its immunomodulatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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15 pages, 3766 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus helveticus-Derived Whey-Calcium Chelate Promotes Calcium Absorption and Bone Health of Rats Fed a Low-Calcium Diet
by Wei Hu, Zhiwen Pei, Aonan Xia, Yang Jiang, Bo Yang, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang and Wei Chen
Nutrients 2024, 16(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16081127 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
This study investigated the characteristics of Lactobacillus helveticus-derived whey-calcium chelate (LHWCC) and its effect on the calcium absorption and bone health of rats. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl oxygen atoms, amino nitrogen atoms, and phosphate ions were the major binding sites [...] Read more.
This study investigated the characteristics of Lactobacillus helveticus-derived whey-calcium chelate (LHWCC) and its effect on the calcium absorption and bone health of rats. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl oxygen atoms, amino nitrogen atoms, and phosphate ions were the major binding sites with calcium in LHWCC, which has a sustained release effect in simulated in vitro digestion. LHWCC had beneficial effects on serum biochemical parameters, bone biomechanics, and the morphological indexes of the bones of calcium-deficient rats when fed at a dose of 40 mg Ca/kg BW for 7 weeks. In contrast to the inorganic calcium supplement, LHWCC significantly upregulated the gene expression of transient receptor potential cation V5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, PepT1, calcium-binding protein-D9k (Calbindin-D9k), and a calcium pump (plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, PMCA1b), leading to promotion of the calcium absorption rate, whereas Ca3(PO4)2 only upregulated the TRPV6 channel in vivo. These findings illustrate the potential of LHWCC as an organic calcium supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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19 pages, 83194 KiB  
Article
A High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet Promotes Intestinal Inflammation by Exacerbating Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis and Bile Acid Disorders in Cholecystectomy
by Fusheng Xu, Zhiming Yu, Yaru Liu, Ting Du, Leilei Yu, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen and Qixiao Zhai
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173829 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Patients with post-cholecystectomy (PC) often experience adverse gastrointestinal conditions, such as PC syndrome, colorectal cancer (CRC), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), that accumulate over time. An epidemiological survey further revealed that the risk of cholecystectomy is associated with high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) [...] Read more.
Patients with post-cholecystectomy (PC) often experience adverse gastrointestinal conditions, such as PC syndrome, colorectal cancer (CRC), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), that accumulate over time. An epidemiological survey further revealed that the risk of cholecystectomy is associated with high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) dietary intake. Mounting evidence suggests that cholecystectomy is associated with disrupted gut microbial homeostasis and dysregulated bile acids (BAs) metabolism. However, the effect of an HFHC diet on gastrointestinal complications after cholecystectomy has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of an HFHC diet after cholecystectomy on the gut microbiota–BA metabolic axis and elucidate the association between this alteration and the development of intestinal inflammation. In this study, a mice cholecystectomy model was established, and the levels of IL-Iβ, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the colon were increased in mice fed an HFHC diet for 6 weeks. Analysis of fecal BA metabolism showed that an HFHC diet after cholecystectomy altered the rhythm of the BA metabolism by upregulating liver CPY7A1, CYP8B1, and BSEP and ileal ASBT mRNA expression levels, resulting in increased fecal BA levels. In addition, feeding an HFHC diet after cholecystectomy caused a significant dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which was characterized by the enrichment of the metabolic microbiota involved in BAs; the abundance of pro-inflammatory gut microbiota and related pro-inflammatory metabolite levels was also significantly higher. In contrast, the abundance of major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria significantly decreased. Overall, our study suggests that an HFHC diet after cholecystectomy promotes intestinal inflammation by exacerbating the gut microbiome and BA metabolism dysbiosis in cholecystectomy. Our study also provides useful insights into the maintenance of intestinal health after cholecystectomy through dietary or probiotic intervention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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15 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
Differences in Dietary and Lifestyle Triggers between Non-Erosive Reflux Disease and Reflux Esophagitis—A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Survey in China
by Yang Chen, Xiaohong Sun, Wenjuan Fan, Jiao Yu, Peng Wang, Dong Liu, Mingwei Song, Shi Liu, Xiuli Zuo, Rong Zhang, Yuantao Hou, Shaomei Han, Yanqing Li, Jun Zhang, Xiaoqing Li, Meiyun Ke and Xiucai Fang
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153400 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and symptom onset are closely associated with diet. We aimed to compare the dietary and lifestyle triggers between non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and reflux esophagitis (RE) in Chinese patients and to provide evidence for development of [...] Read more.
The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and symptom onset are closely associated with diet. We aimed to compare the dietary and lifestyle triggers between non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and reflux esophagitis (RE) in Chinese patients and to provide evidence for development of practical dietary modifications for GERD. A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 396 GERD patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux symptoms who received upper endoscopy in the previous month were enrolled, including 203 cases of NERD patients and 193 cases of RE patients. All participants completed questionnaires including demographic data, reflux symptoms, previous management, dietary and lifestyle habits, triggers of reflux symptoms, psychological status, and quality of life. There were no significant differences in GERD symptom scores between NERD and RE. RE patients had a higher male proportion and smoking/drinking and overeating rates than NERD patients. In the NERD group, more patients reported that fruits, dairy products, yogurt, bean products, cold food, and carbonated beverages sometimes and often induced reflux symptoms and had more triggers compared to RE patients. The number of triggers was positively correlated to GERD symptom score and GERD-HRQL score in both NERD and RE patients. However, 74.0% of GERD patients still often consumed the triggering foods, even those foods that sometimes and often induced their reflux symptoms, which might be related to the reflux relapse after PPI withdrawal considering NERD and RE patients had similar GERD symptom severity. There were some differences in terms of dietary habits, dietary and lifestyle triggers, and related quality of life between NERD and RE, and these results may provide evidence of different approaches toward the dietary modification of NERD and RE patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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10 pages, 2485 KiB  
Article
Sex-Specific Associations of Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption with Serum Metabolites in the UK Biobank
by Bohan Fan and Jie V. Zhao
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245306 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Red meat consumption has been found to closely related to cardiometabolic health, with sex disparity. However, the specific metabolic factors corresponding to red meat consumption in men and women have not been examined previously. We analyzed the sex-specific associations of meat consumption, with [...] Read more.
Red meat consumption has been found to closely related to cardiometabolic health, with sex disparity. However, the specific metabolic factors corresponding to red meat consumption in men and women have not been examined previously. We analyzed the sex-specific associations of meat consumption, with 167 metabolites using multivariable regression, controlling for age, ethnicity, Townsend deprivation index, education, physical activity, smoking, and drinking status among ~79,644 UK Biobank participants. We also compared the sex differences using an established formula. After accounting for multiple testing with false discovery rate < 5% and controlling for confounders, the positive associations of unprocessed red meat consumption with branched-chain amino acids and several lipoproteins, and the inverse association with glycine were stronger in women, while the positive associations with apolipoprotein A1, creatinine, and monounsaturated fatty acids were more obvious in men. For processed meat, the positive associations with branched-chain amino acids, several lipoproteins, tyrosine, lactate, glycoprotein acetyls and inverse associations with glutamine, and glycine were stronger in women than in men. The study suggests that meat consumption has sex-specific associations with several metabolites. This has important implication to provide dietary suggestions for individuals with or at high risk of cardiometabolic disease, with consideration of sex difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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Review

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28 pages, 2872 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Glycemic Carbohydrates on the Neurocognitive Functions Based on Gut Microenvironment Regulation and Glycemic Fluctuation Control
by Jian Yin, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Zhaofeng Li, Caiming Li, Xiaofeng Ban, Ling Zhu and Zhengbiao Gu
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245080 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Improper glycemic carbohydrates (GCs) consumption can be a potential risk factor for metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, which may lead to cognitive impairment. Although several potential mechanisms have been studied, the biological relationship between carbohydrate consumption and neurocognitive impairment is still [...] Read more.
Improper glycemic carbohydrates (GCs) consumption can be a potential risk factor for metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, which may lead to cognitive impairment. Although several potential mechanisms have been studied, the biological relationship between carbohydrate consumption and neurocognitive impairment is still uncertain. In this review, the main effects and mechanisms of GCs’ digestive characteristics on cognitive functions are comprehensively elucidated. Additionally, healthier carbohydrate selection, a reliable research model, and future directions are discussed. Individuals in their early and late lives and patients with metabolic diseases are highly susceptible to dietary-induced cognitive impairment. It is well known that gut function is closely related to dietary patterns. Unhealthy carbohydrate diet-induced gut microenvironment disorders negatively impact cognitive functions through the gut–brain axis. Moreover, severe glycemic fluctuations, due to rapidly digestible carbohydrate consumption or metabolic diseases, can impair neurocognitive functions by disrupting glucose metabolism, dysregulating calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and accumulating advanced glycation end products. Unstable glycemic status can lead to more severe neurological impairment than persistent hyperglycemia. Slow-digested or resistant carbohydrates might contribute to better neurocognitive functions due to stable glycemic response and healthier gut functions than fully gelatinized starch and nutritive sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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