Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Dentistry"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 7509

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Sanjukta Deb
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Oral Clinical & Translational Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK
Interests: Design of biomimetic and bio-instructive biomaterials; scaffolds for bone tissue engineering; hydrogel networks for wound dressings; Antimicrobial agents; Remineralisation of teeth; resin-dentine interface; Smart biomaterials; Novel orthodontic etching techniques
Dr. Sherif Elsharkawy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Oral Clinical & Translational Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London London, UK
Interests: biomineralization;calcification; biological hard tissues; dental materials; dental enamel; prosthodontics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 

Dental materials represent a fundamental aspect of clinical dentistry, which uniquely employs almost all classes of materials in the restoration or replacement of diseased oral tissue. Recent advances in nanotechnology have aided in the development of a variety of nanomaterials for dental applications, and this technology is being embraced for its relevance in both tooth restoration and craniofacial tissue engineering. Nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nano-fibres and nanosheets are driving the development of innovative material, and the possible enhancement of the properties of restorative materials is currently being explored, including antimicrobial properties, remineralising activity, caries inhibition, use as disinfectants in root canals, surface modification of implants and tissue engineering. 

This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of research in nanomaterials for different applications in dentistry as well as the translation of these technologies. The topics of interest include dental restoratives, antimicrobials, adhesive systems, caries prevention and remineralisation, root canal disinfectants, tissue regeneration strategies and safety aspects.

Prof. Sanjukta Deb
Dr. Sherif Elsharkawy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dental restoratives
  • antimicrobials
  • adhesive systems
  • caries prevention and remineralisation
  • root canal disinfectants
  • tissue regeneration strategies and safety aspects

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effects of Sr/F-Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles and Calcium Phosphate on Monomer Conversion, Biaxial Flexural Strength, Surface Microhardness, Mass/Volume Changes, and Color Stability of Dual-Cured Dental Composites for Core Build-Up Materials
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111897 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This study prepared composites for core build-up containing Sr/F bioactive glass nanoparticles (Sr/F-BGNPs) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) to prevent dental caries. The effect of the additives on the physical/mechanical properties of the materials was examined. Dual-cured resin composites were prepared using dimethacrylate [...] Read more.
This study prepared composites for core build-up containing Sr/F bioactive glass nanoparticles (Sr/F-BGNPs) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) to prevent dental caries. The effect of the additives on the physical/mechanical properties of the materials was examined. Dual-cured resin composites were prepared using dimethacrylate monomers with added Sr/F-BGNPs (5 or 10 wt%) and MCPM (3 or 6 wt%). The additives reduced the light-activated monomer conversion by ~10%, but their effect on the conversion upon self-curing was negligible. The conversions of light-curing or self-curing polymerization of the experimental materials were greater than that of the commercial material. The additives reduced biaxial flexural strength (191 to 155 MPa), modulus (4.4 to 3.3), and surface microhardness (53 to 45 VHN). These values were comparable to that of the commercial material or within the acceptable range of the standard. The changes in the experimental composites’ mass and volume (~1%) were similar to that of the commercial comparison. The color change of the commercial material (1.0) was lower than that of the experimental composites (1.5–5.8). The addition of Sr/F-BGNPs and MCPM negatively affected the physical/mechanical properties of the composites, but the results were satisfactory except for color stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
An In Vitro Evaluation of Selenium Nanoparticles on Osteoblastic Differentiation and Antimicrobial Properties against Porphyromonas gingivalis
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(11), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12111850 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 365
Abstract
Despite numerous treatment methods, there is no gold standard for the treatment of peri-implantitis—an infectious peri-implant disease. Here, we examined selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) at a wide range of concentrations to investigate their cytotoxicity, regulation of osteoblastic differentiation, and assessed the antibacterial effect against [...] Read more.
Despite numerous treatment methods, there is no gold standard for the treatment of peri-implantitis—an infectious peri-implant disease. Here, we examined selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) at a wide range of concentrations to investigate their cytotoxicity, regulation of osteoblastic differentiation, and assessed the antibacterial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis. SeNPs (mean size: 70 nm; shape: near-spherical; concentration: 0–2048 ppm) were tested against the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast precursor cell line and P. gingivalis red complex pathogen. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis was used to evaluate the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) signaling pathway. SeNPs at concentrations of 2–16 ppm showed no obvious cytotoxicity and promoted good mineralization and calcification. SeNPs at concentrations 64 ppm and below influenced gene expression promoting osteoblastic differentiation, whereas at high concentrations inhibited the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). The growth of P. gingivalis was significantly inhibited at SeNP concentrations of more than 4 ppm. SeNPs at low concentrations promoted osteoblastic differentiation while strongly inhibiting peri-implantitis pathogen growth. This study represents one of the few in vitro assessments of SeNPs against a red complex pathogen and the regulatory effect on osteoblastic differentiation. The findings demonstrate SeNPs could potentially be used for future application on implant coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
Zinc-Containing Sol–Gel Glass Nanoparticles to Deliver Therapeutic Ions
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101691 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Zn-containing dense monodispersed bioactive glass nanoparticles (Zn-BAGNPs) have been developed to deliver therapeutic inorganic trace elements, including Si, Ca, Sr, and Zn, to the cells through the degradation process, as delivery carriers for stimulating bone regeneration because of their capacity to induce osteogenic [...] Read more.
Zn-containing dense monodispersed bioactive glass nanoparticles (Zn-BAGNPs) have been developed to deliver therapeutic inorganic trace elements, including Si, Ca, Sr, and Zn, to the cells through the degradation process, as delivery carriers for stimulating bone regeneration because of their capacity to induce osteogenic differentiation. The sol–gel-derived dense silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) were first synthesized using the modified Stöber method, prior to incorporating therapeutic cations through the heat treatment process. The successfully synthesized monodispersed Zn-BAGNPs (diameter of 130 ± 20 nm) were homogeneous in size with spherical morphology. Ca, Sr and Zn were incorporated through the two-step post-functionalization process, with the nominal ZnO ratio between 0 and 2 (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). Zn-BAGNPs have the capacity for continuous degradation and simultaneous ion release in SBF and PBS solutions due to their amorphous structure. Zn-BAGNPs have no in vitro cytotoxicity on the murine pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), up to a concentration of 250 µg/mL. Zn-BAGNPs also stimulated osteogenic differentiation on PDLSCs treated with particles, after 2 and 3 weeks in culture. Zn-BAGNPs were not toxic to the cells and have the potential to stimulate osteogenic differentiation on PDLSCs. Therefore, Zn-BAGNPs are potential vehicles for therapeutic cation delivery for applications in bone and dental regenerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
New and Efficient Bioactive Glass Compositions for Controlling Endodontic Pathogens
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(9), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12091577 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Endodontic treatment aims to conserve teeth through removing infected tissue, disinfecting, and filling/sealing the root canal. One of the most important treatment steps is the removal of microorganisms to avoid reinfection and consequent tooth loss. Due to increased resistance to intracanal medications, new [...] Read more.
Endodontic treatment aims to conserve teeth through removing infected tissue, disinfecting, and filling/sealing the root canal. One of the most important treatment steps is the removal of microorganisms to avoid reinfection and consequent tooth loss. Due to increased resistance to intracanal medications, new alternative procedures are needed. Thus, an intracanal medication is suggested using three bioactive glass (BG) compositions (BG1, BG2, and BG3) produced by the sol–gel method, with different molar contents of bactericidal oxides. The BGs were morphologically and physically characterized. Their ability to inhibit the growth of two oral pathogens responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments (E. faecalis and C. albicans) was also studied. The results suggest that BG2 and BG3 can inhibit the growth of E. faecalis after 48 h of incubation, and all BG samples have a significant effect on C. albicans survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
Novel Pastes Containing Polymeric Nanoparticles for Dentin Hypersensitivity Treatment: An In Vitro Study
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113150 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Tubule occlusion and remineralization are considered the two main goals of dentin hypersensitivity treatment. The objective is to assess the ability of dentifrices containing zinc-doped polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to enduringly occlude the dentinal tubules, reinforcing dentin’s mechanical properties. Fifteen dentin surfaces were acid-treated [...] Read more.
Tubule occlusion and remineralization are considered the two main goals of dentin hypersensitivity treatment. The objective is to assess the ability of dentifrices containing zinc-doped polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to enduringly occlude the dentinal tubules, reinforcing dentin’s mechanical properties. Fifteen dentin surfaces were acid-treated for dentinal tubule exposure and brushed with (1) distilled water, or with experimental pastes containing (2) 1% of zinc-doped NPs, (3) 5% of zinc-doped NPs, (4) 10% of zinc-doped NPs or (5) Sensodyne®. Topographical and nanomechanical analyses were performed on treated dentin surfaces and after a citric acid challenge. ANOVA and Student–Newman–Keuls tests were used (p < 0.05). The main results indicate that all pastes produced tubule occlusion (100%) and reinforced mechanical properties of intertubular dentin (complex modulus was above 75 GPa). After the citric acid challenge, only those pastes containing zinc-doped NPs were able to maintain tubular occlusion, as specimens treated with Sensodyne® have around 30% of tubules opened. Mechanical properties were maintained for dentin treated with Zn-doped NPs, but in the case of specimens treated with Sensodyne®, complex modulus values were reduced below 50 GPa. It may be concluded that zinc-doped NPs at the lowest tested concentration produced acid-resistant tubular occlusion and increased the mechanical properties of dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
Raman and XANES Spectroscopic Study of the Influence of Coordination Atomic and Molecular Environments in Biomimetic Composite Materials Integrated with Dental Tissue
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113099 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
In this work, for the first time, the influence of the coordination environment as well as Ca and P atomic states on biomimetic composites integrated with dental tissue was investigated. Bioinspired dental composites were synthesised based on nanocrystalline calcium carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite [...] Read more.
In this work, for the first time, the influence of the coordination environment as well as Ca and P atomic states on biomimetic composites integrated with dental tissue was investigated. Bioinspired dental composites were synthesised based on nanocrystalline calcium carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca4ICa6IIPO46xCO3x+yOH2y (nano-cHAp) obtained from a biogenic source and a set of polar amino acids that modelled the organic matrix. Biomimetic composites, as well as natural dental tissue samples, were investigated using Raman spectromicroscopy and synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Molecular structure and energy structure studies revealed several important features related to the different calcium atomic environments. It was shown that biomimetic composites created in order to reproduce the physicochemical properties of dental tissue provide good imitation of molecular and electron energetic properties, including the carbonate anion CO32− and the atomic Ca/P ratio in nanocrystals. The features of the molecular structure of biomimetic composites are inherited from the nano-cHAp (to a greater extent) and the amino acid cocktail used for their creation, and are caused by the ratio between the mineral and organic components, which is similar to the composition of natural enamel and dentine. In this case, violation of the nano-cHAp stoichiometry, which is the mineral basis of the natural and bioinspired composites, as well as the inclusion of different molecular groups in the nano-cHAp lattice, do not affect the coordination environment of phosphorus atoms. The differences observed in the molecular and electron energetic structures of the natural enamel and dentine and the imitation of their properties by biomimetic materials are caused by rearrangement in the local environment of the calcium atoms in the HAp crystal lattice. The surface of the nano-cHAp crystals in the natural enamel and dentine involved in the formation of bonds with the organic matrix is characterised by the coordination environment of the calcium atom, corresponding to its location in the CaI position—that is, bound through common oxygen atoms with PO4 tetrahedrons. At the same time, on the surface of nano-cHAp crystals in bioinspired dental materials, the calcium atom is characteristically located in the CaII position, bound to the hydroxyl OH group. The features detected in the atomic and molecular coordination environment in nano-cHAp play a fundamental role in recreating a biomimetic dental composite of the natural organomineral interaction in mineralised tissue and will help to find an optimal way to integrate the dental biocomposite with natural tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Article
Short- and Long-Term Dentin Bond Strength of Bioactive Glass-Modified Dental Adhesives
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081894 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
This study investigated the short- and long-term effects of dental adhesives doped with nano-sized bioactive glass 45S5 (BAG) on the resin–dentin interfacial bond strength. Two etch-and-rinse adhesives (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (ASB) and Solobond Plus (SB)) and one self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CF)) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the short- and long-term effects of dental adhesives doped with nano-sized bioactive glass 45S5 (BAG) on the resin–dentin interfacial bond strength. Two etch-and-rinse adhesives (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (ASB) and Solobond Plus (SB)) and one self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CF)) were doped with different concentrations of BAG (5, 10, and 20 wt%). The unmodified (0 wt% BAG) commercial adhesives served as control groups. Dentin of 120 molars (n = 10 per group) was treated with the different adhesives, followed by buildups with a conventional composite restorative material. From each tooth, 14 sticks were prepared for micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) testing. The sticks were stored in simulated body fluid at 37 °C and tested after 24 h or six months for µTBS and failure mode. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis tests in combination with post-hoc Conover-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests at a level of significance of α = 0.05. After 24 h and six months, both etch-and-rinse adhesives with a low BAG content (up to 10 wt% for ASB and 5 wt% for SB) showed similar µTBSs as their respective control groups (0 wt% BAG). CF showed a significant decrease in µTBS even after addition of 5 wt% BAG. At a high concentration of added BAG (20 wt%), all three adhesives showed a significant decrease in µTBS compared to the unmodified controls. The CF control group showed significantly lower µTBS after 6 months of storage than after 24 h. In contrast, the µTBS of all CF groups modified with BAG was unaffected by aging. In conclusion, the tested etch-and-rinse adhesives can be modified with up to 5 wt% (SB), or 10 wt% (ASB) of BAG without reducing their short- and long-term dentin bond strength. Moreover, the addition of nano-sized BAG may prevent long-term bond strength deterioration of a self-etch adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Review

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Review
Nanomaterials in Dentistry: Current Applications and Future Scope
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101676 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 537
Abstract
Nanotechnology utilizes the mechanics to control the size and morphology of the particles in the required nano range for accomplishing the intended purposes. There was a time when it was predominantly applied only to the fields of matter physics or chemical engineering, but [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology utilizes the mechanics to control the size and morphology of the particles in the required nano range for accomplishing the intended purposes. There was a time when it was predominantly applied only to the fields of matter physics or chemical engineering, but with time, biological scientists recognized its vast benefits and explored the advantages in their respective fields. This extension of nanotechnology in the field of dentistry is termed ‘Nanodentistry.’ It is revolutionizing every aspect of dentistry. It consists of therapeutic and diagnostic tools and supportive aids to maintain oral hygiene with the help of nanomaterials. Research in nanodentistry is evolving holistically but slowly with the advanced finding of symbiotic use of novel polymers, natural polymers, metals, minerals, and drugs. These materials, in association with nanotechnology, further assist in exploring the usage of nano dental adducts in prosthodontic, regeneration, orthodontic, etc. Moreover, drug release cargo abilities of the nano dental adduct provide an extra edge to dentistry over their conventional counterparts. Nano dentistry has expanded to every single branch of dentistry. In the present review, we will present a holistic view of the recent advances in the field of nanodentistry. The later part of the review compiled the ethical and regulatory challenges in the commercialization of the nanodentistry. This review tracks the advancement in nano dentistry in different but important domains of dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Review
Magnetic Nanoparticles in Bone Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050757 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Large bone defects with limited intrinsic regenerative potential represent a major surgical challenge and are associated with a high socio-economic burden and severe reduction in the quality of life. Tissue engineering approaches offer the possibility to induce new functional bone regeneration, with the [...] Read more.
Large bone defects with limited intrinsic regenerative potential represent a major surgical challenge and are associated with a high socio-economic burden and severe reduction in the quality of life. Tissue engineering approaches offer the possibility to induce new functional bone regeneration, with the biomimetic scaffold serving as a bridge to create a microenvironment that enables a regenerative niche at the site of damage. Magnetic nanoparticles have emerged as a potential tool in bone tissue engineering that leverages the inherent magnetism of magnetic nano particles in cellular microenvironments providing direction in enhancing the osteoinductive, osteoconductive and angiogenic properties in the design of scaffolds. There are conflicting opinions and reports on the role of MNPs on these scaffolds, such as the true role of magnetism, the application of external magnetic fields in combination with MNPs, remote delivery of biomechanical stimuli in-vivo and magnetically controlled cell retention or bioactive agent delivery in promoting osteogenesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on the role of magnetic nanoparticles for bone-tissue-engineering applications in both disease modelling and treatment of injuries and disease. We highlight the materials-design pathway from implementation strategy through the selection of materials and fabrication methods to evaluation. We discuss the advances in this field and unmet needs, current challenges in the development of ideal materials for bone-tissue regeneration and emerging strategies in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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Review
Exploiting Nanomaterials for Optical Coherence Tomography and Photoacoustic Imaging in Nanodentistry
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030506 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
There is already a societal awareness of the growing impact of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with nanomaterials (with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) now incorporated in items as diverse as mobile phones, clothes or dentifrices. In the healthcare area, nanoparticles of [...] Read more.
There is already a societal awareness of the growing impact of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with nanomaterials (with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) now incorporated in items as diverse as mobile phones, clothes or dentifrices. In the healthcare area, nanoparticles of biocompatible materials have already been used for cancer treatment or bioimaging enhancement. Nanotechnology in dentistry, or nanodentistry, has already found some developments in dental nanomaterials for caries management, restorative dentistry and orthodontic adhesives. In this review, we present state-of-the-art scientific development in nanodentistry with an emphasis on two imaging techniques exploiting nanomaterials: optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Examples will be given using OCT with nanomaterials to enhance the acquired imaging, acting as optical clearing agents for OCT. A novel application of gold nanoparticles and nanorods for imaging enhancement of incipient occlusal caries using OCT will be described. Additionally, we will highlight how the OCT technique can be properly managed to provide imaging with spatial resolution down to 10′s–100′s nm resolution. For PAI, we will describe how new nanoparticles, namely TiN, prepared by femtosecond laser ablation, can be used in nanodentistry and will show photoacoustic microscopy and tomography images for such exogenous agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Dentistry)
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