Special Issue "Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Junghwan Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea
Interests: bioactive nanomaterials; dental functional biomaterials; cell reprograming; mechanotransduction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanosized biomaterials exhibit many interesting features, such as a high surface area and mechanophysical tunability, which possibly mimics the natural extracellular matrix. Thus, nano-biomaterials with diverse functionality can be engineered in various types of architectures, such as nanoparticles, nanofiber, 2D film, porous 3D scaffolds, hydrogels, and their composites from the latest nanotechnology. Nanomaterials and nanotechnology are extremely helpful in accelerating drug/biomolecule delivery ability and myriad cellular response, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation for the repair and regeneration of specific tissues, such as bone, cartilage, nerve, muscle, etc. with great biocompatibility Thus, we invite research, review, or communications papers with a broad range of nanomaterials and nanotechnology for regenerative medicine.

Dr. Junghwan Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • functional nanoparticles
  • biomaterials
  • regenerative medicine
  • immunomodulation
  • mechanotransduction
  • preclinical test
  • biocompatibility

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Nano-Topographical Control of Ti-Nb-Zr Alloy Surfaces for Enhanced Osteoblastic Response
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061507 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Nano-scale surface roughening of metallic bio-implants plays an important role in the clinical success of hard tissue reconstruction and replacement. In this study, the nano-topographical features of titanium-niobium-zirconium (TNZ) alloy surfaces were controlled by using the target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) technique to [...] Read more.
Nano-scale surface roughening of metallic bio-implants plays an important role in the clinical success of hard tissue reconstruction and replacement. In this study, the nano-topographical features of titanium-niobium-zirconium (TNZ) alloy surfaces were controlled by using the target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) technique to improve the in vitro osteoblastic response. The TIPS technique is a novel strategy for etching the surface of metallic bio-implants using bombardment of target metal cations, which were accelerated by an extremely high negative bias voltage applied to the substrates. The nano-topography of the TNZ surfaces was successfully controlled by modulating experimental variables (such as the ion etching energy and the type of substrate or target materials) of TIPS. As a result, various nanopatterns (size: 10–210 nm) were fabricated on the surface of the TNZ alloys. Compared with the control group, experimental groups with nanopattern widths of ≥130 nm (130 and 210 nm groups) exhibited superior cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that TIPS is a promising technology that can impart excellent biological functions to the surface of metallic bio-implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Electrospun PCL-Based Vascular Grafts: In Vitro Tests
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030751 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Background: Electrospun fibers have attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to their several characteristics, such as a very thin diameter, three-dimensional topography, large surface area, flexible surface, good mechanical characteristics, suitable for widespread applications. Indeed, electro-spinning offers many benefits, such as [...] Read more.
Background: Electrospun fibers have attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to their several characteristics, such as a very thin diameter, three-dimensional topography, large surface area, flexible surface, good mechanical characteristics, suitable for widespread applications. Indeed, electro-spinning offers many benefits, such as great surface-to-volume ratio, adjustable porosity, and the ability of imitating the tissue extra-cellular matrix. Methods: we processed Poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) via electrospinning for the production of bilayered tubular scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering application. Endothelial cells and fibroblasts were seeded into the two side of the scaffolds: endothelial cells onto the inner side composed of PCL/Gelatin fibers able to mimic the inner surface of the vessels, and fibroblasts onto the outer side only exposing PCL fibers. Extracellular matrix production and organization has been performed by means of classical immunofluorescence against collagen type I fibers, Scanning Electron-Microscopy (SEM) has been performed in order to evaluated ultrastructural morphology, gene expression by means gene expression has been performed to evaluate the phenotype of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Results and conclusion: results confirmed that both cells population are able to conserve their phenotype colonizing the surface supporting the hypothesis that PCL scaffolds based on electrospun fibers should be a good candidate for vascular surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
The Effect of Selenium Nanoparticles on the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020557 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate various functions of cells, including cell death, viability, and differentiation, and nanoparticles influence ROS depending on their size and shape. Selenium is known to regulate various physiological functions, such as cell differentiations and anti-inflammatory functions, and plays an [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate various functions of cells, including cell death, viability, and differentiation, and nanoparticles influence ROS depending on their size and shape. Selenium is known to regulate various physiological functions, such as cell differentiations and anti-inflammatory functions, and plays an important role in the regulation of ROS as an antioxidant. This study aims to investigate the effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on the differentiation of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. After fabrication of SeNPs with a size of 25.3 ± 2.6 nm, and confirmation of its oxidase-like activity, SeNPs were added to MC3T3-E1 cells with or without H2O2: 5~20 μg/mL SeNPs recovered cells damaged by 200 μM H2O2 via the intracellular ROS downregulating role of SeNPs, revealed by the ROS staining assay. The increase in osteogenic maturation with SeNPs was gradually investigated by expression of osteogenic genes at 3 and 7 days, Alkaline phosphatase activity staining at 14 days, and Alizarin red S staining at 28 days. Therefore, the role of SeNPs in regulating ROS and their therapeutic effects on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells were determined, leading to possible applications for bone treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Physical Properties and Biofunctionalities of Bioactive Root Canal Sealers In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091750 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Calcium silicate-based bioactive glass has received significant attention for use in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, the bioactivity of calcium silicate nanoparticle-incorporated bioactive dental sealer is not much explored. Herein, three commercially available bioactive root canal sealers [...] Read more.
Calcium silicate-based bioactive glass has received significant attention for use in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, the bioactivity of calcium silicate nanoparticle-incorporated bioactive dental sealer is not much explored. Herein, three commercially available bioactive root canal sealers (Endoseal MTA (EDS), Well-Root ST (WST), and Nishika Canal Sealer BG (NBG)) were compared with a resin-based control sealer (AH Plus (AHP)) in terms of physical, chemical, and biological properties. EDS and NBG showed 200 to 400 nm and 100 to 200 nm nanoparticle incorporation in the SEM image, respectively, and WST and NBG showed mineral deposition in Hank’s balanced salt solution after 28 days. The flowability and film thickness of all products met the ISO 3107 standard. Water contact angle, linear dimensional changes, and calcium and silicate ion release were significantly different among groups. All bioactive root canal sealers released calcium ions, while NBG released ~10 times more silicon ions than the other bioactive root canal sealers. Under the cytocompatible extraction range, NBG showed prominent cytocompatibility, osteogenecity, and angiogenecity compared to other sealers in vitro. These results indicate that calcium silicate nanoparticle incorporation in dental sealers could be a potential strategy for dental periapical tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Constant Magnetic Field to the Proliferation Rate of Human Fibroblasts Grown onto Different Substrates: Tissue Culture Polystyrene, Polyacrylamide Hydrogel and Ferrogels γ-Fe2O3 Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091697 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The static magnetic field was shown to affect the proliferation, adhesion and differentiation of various types of cells, making it a helpful tool for regenerative medicine, though the mechanism of its impact on cells is not completely understood. In this work, we have [...] Read more.
The static magnetic field was shown to affect the proliferation, adhesion and differentiation of various types of cells, making it a helpful tool for regenerative medicine, though the mechanism of its impact on cells is not completely understood. In this work, we have designed and tested a magnetic system consisting of an equidistant set of the similar commercial permanent magnets (6 × 4 assay) in order to get insight on the potential of its experimental usage in the biological studies with cells culturing in a magnetic field. Human dermal fibroblasts, which are widely applied in regenerative medicine, were used for the comparative study of their proliferation rate on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and on the polyacrylamide ferrogels with 0.00, 0.63 and 1.19 wt % concentrations of γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles obtained by the well-established technique of laser target evaporation. We used either the same batch as in previously performed but different biological experiments or the same fabrication conditions for fabrication of the nanoparticles. This adds special value to the understanding of the mechanisms of nanoparticles contributions to the processes occurring in the living systems in their presence. The magnetic field increased human dermal fibroblast cell proliferation rate on TCPS, but, at the same time, it suppressed the growth of fibroblasts on blank gel and on polyacrylamide ferrogels. However, the proliferation rate of cells on ferrogels positively correlated with the concentration of nanoparticles. Such a dependence was observed both for cell proliferation without the application of the magnetic field and under the exposure to the constant magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Resin-Based Sealant with Bioactive Glass and Zwitterionic Material for Remineralisation and Multi-Species Biofilm Inhibition
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081581 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Since pits and fissures are the areas most commonly affected by caries due to their structural irregularity, bioactive resin-based sealant (RBS) may contribute to the prevention of secondary caries. This study aims to investigate the mechanical, physical, ion-release, enamel remineralisation, and antibacterial capabilities [...] Read more.
Since pits and fissures are the areas most commonly affected by caries due to their structural irregularity, bioactive resin-based sealant (RBS) may contribute to the prevention of secondary caries. This study aims to investigate the mechanical, physical, ion-release, enamel remineralisation, and antibacterial capabilities of the novel RBS with bioactive glass (BAG) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). For the synthesis, 12.5 wt% BAG and 3 wt% MPC were incorporated into RBS. The contact angle, flexural strength, water sorption, solubility, and viscosity were investigated. The release of multiple ions relating to enamel remineralisation was investigated. Further, the attachments of bovine serum albumin, brain heart infusion broth, and Streptococcus mutans on RBS were studied. Finally, the thickness and biomass of a human saliva-derived microsm biofilm model were analysed before aging, with static immersion aging and with thermocycling aging. In comparison to commercial RBS, BAG+MPC increased the wettability, water sorption, solubility, viscosity, and release of multiple ions, while the flexural strength did not significantly differ. Furthermore, RBS with MPC and BAG+MPC significantly reduced protein and bacteria adhesion and suppressed multi-species biofilm attachment regardless of the existence of aging and its type. The novel RBS has great potential to facilitate enamel remineralisation and suppress biofilm adhesion, which could prevent secondary dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Biological Effects of Tricalcium Silicate Nanoparticle-Containing Cement on Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071373 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Nanomaterials can enhance interactions with stem cells for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the biological effects of tricalcium silicate nanoparticle-containing cement (Biodentine™) during or after setting on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to mimic clinically relevant situations in [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials can enhance interactions with stem cells for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the biological effects of tricalcium silicate nanoparticle-containing cement (Biodentine™) during or after setting on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to mimic clinically relevant situations in which materials are adapted. Specimens were divided into four groups depending on the start of extraction time (during (3, 6 and 12 min) or after setting (24 h)) and extracted in culture medium for 24 h for further physicochemical and biological analysis. After cell viability in serially diluted extracts was evaluated, odontogenic differentiation on SHED was evaluated by ARS staining using nontoxic conditions. A physicochemical analysis of extracts or specimens indicated different Ca ion content, pH, and surface chemistry among groups, supporting the possibility of different biological functionalities depending on the extraction starting conditions. Compared to the ‘after setting’ group, all ‘during setting’ groups showed cytotoxicity on SHED. The during setting groups induced more odontogenic differentiation at the nontoxic concentrations compared to the control. Thus, under clinically simulated extract conditions at nontoxic concentrations, Biodentine™ seemed to be a promising odontoblast differentiating biomaterial that is helpful for dental tissue regeneration. In addition, to simulate clinical situations when nanoparticle-containing cement is adjusted, biological effects during setting need to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Antibacterial and Osteogenic Activity of Titania Nanotubes Modified with Electrospray-Deposited Tetracycline Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061093 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The nanotubular surface of titanium implants is known to have superior osteogenic activity but is also vulnerable to failure because of induced bacterial attachment and consequent secondary infection. Here, the problem was attempted to be solved by depositing nanosized tetracycline (TC)-loaded particles in [...] Read more.
The nanotubular surface of titanium implants is known to have superior osteogenic activity but is also vulnerable to failure because of induced bacterial attachment and consequent secondary infection. Here, the problem was attempted to be solved by depositing nanosized tetracycline (TC)-loaded particles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) on titania nanotubes (TNTs) using the electrospray deposition method. The antibacterial effect of the newly formed TNT surface was considered using the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Maintenance of the biocompatibility and osteogenic characteristics of TNTs has been tested through cytotoxicity tests and osteogenic gene expression/extra-cellular matrix mineralization, respectively. The results showed that TNTs were successfully formed by anodization, and the characterization of TC deposited on the TNTs was controlled by varying the spraying parameters such as particle size and coating time. The TC nanoparticle-coated TNTs showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and biocompatibility with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, while the osteogenic activity of the TNT structure was preserved, as demonstrated by osteocalcin and osteopontin gene expression, as well as Alizarin red staining. Hence, this study concluded that the electrosprayed TC coating of TNTs is a simple and effective method for the formation of bactericidal implants that can maintain osteogenic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Incorporating Aminated Nanodiamonds to Improve the Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Resin-Based Biomedical Appliances
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050827 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The creation of clinically patient-specific 3D-printed biomedical appliances that can withstand the physical stresses of the complex biological environment is an important objective. To that end, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of aminated nanodiamonds (A-NDs) as nanofillers in biological-grade acrylate-based 3D-printed [...] Read more.
The creation of clinically patient-specific 3D-printed biomedical appliances that can withstand the physical stresses of the complex biological environment is an important objective. To that end, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of aminated nanodiamonds (A-NDs) as nanofillers in biological-grade acrylate-based 3D-printed materials. Solution-based mixing was used to incorporate 0.1 wt% purified nanodiamond (NDs) and A-NDs into UV-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The ND and A-ND nanocomposites showed significantly lower water contact angles (p < 0.001) and solubilities (p < 0.05) compared to those of the control. Both nanocomposites showed markedly improved mechanical properties, with the A-ND-containing nanocomposite showing a statistically significant increase in the flexural strength (p < 0.001), elastic modulus (p < 0.01), and impact strength (p < 0.001) compared to the control and ND-containing groups. The Vickers hardness and wear-resistance values of the A-ND-incorporated material were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those of the control and were comparable to the values observed for the ND-containing group. In addition, trueness analysis was used to verify that 3D-printed orthodontic brackets prepared with the A-ND- and ND-nanocomposites exhibited no significant differences in accuracy. Hence, we conclude that the successful incorporation of 0.1 wt% A-ND in UV-polymerized PMMA resin significantly improves the mechanical properties of the resin for the additive manufacturing of precisive 3D-printed biomedical appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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Review

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Review
Current Nanoparticle-Based Technologies for Osteoarthritis Therapy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122368 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint disease that is characterized by joint pain and stiffness, and limitation of motion and the major cause of disability, which reduces life quality of patients and brings a large economic burden to the family and society. [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint disease that is characterized by joint pain and stiffness, and limitation of motion and the major cause of disability, which reduces life quality of patients and brings a large economic burden to the family and society. Current clinical treatment is mostly limited to symptomatic treatment aimed at pain alleviation and functional improvement, rather than suppressing the progression of OA. Nanotechnology is a promising strategy for the treatment of OA. In this review, we summarize the current experimental progress that focuses on technologies such as liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), exosomes, and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for their potential treatment of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology for Regenerative Medicine)
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