Special Issue "Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tito Trindade
Website
Guest Editor
Chemistry Department and CICECO- Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: inorganic nanoparticles; quantum dots; Raman spectroscopy; magnetic nanosorbents; surface chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Helena Nogueira
Website
Guest Editor
CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: nanostructured materials; metal nanoparticles; polyoxometalates; Raman spectroscopy; SERS; Raman imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Raman spectroscopy has emerged from a technique mainly used by molecular spectroscopists, to a widely-spread tool in different laboratories, for both academia and companies. Among the several factors that have contributed to the upsurge in use of this technique, there are obviously the advances in instrumentation and computing power, and (while not less important) the advances in nanomaterial science that, in some cases, introduced Raman methods to the agenda of a number of research laboratories in quite different fields. A paradigmatic example of this trend has been the increasing interest in imaging techniques associated with Raman spectroscopy. Confocal Raman microscopy combines digital imaging technology with Raman spectroscopy, providing information about chemical composition, structure, and spatial distributions of components in a sample. The images obtained correspond to maps of the spatial distributions of compounds in a specimen that are, thus, observed with little to no sample preparation, using non-destructive and non-invasive approaches. These features are of special relevance for the imaging of biological systems. The use of nanomaterials, together with Raman imaging, allows to further extend the application of this technique, noteworthy for developing methods based on surface mediated phenomena, such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). This Special Issue intends to provide recent developments in the use of Raman imaging and nanoscale materials, which conform the state of the art of this approach, which is seen as a valuable tool in different areas, such as materials science, life sciences and clinical diagnosis, pharmaceuticals development, among many others.

Prof. Dr. Tito Trindade
Prof. Dr. Helena Nogueira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Raman mapping
  • Confocal Raman microscopy
  • Bioimaging
  • SERS
  • TERS

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of ZnO Nanorod-Based Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates for Bio-Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030447 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nanorods based on ZnO for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy are promising for the non-invasive and rapid detection of biomarkers and diagnosis of disease. However, optimization of nanorod and coating parameters is essential to their practical application. With the goal of establishing a baseline [...] Read more.
Nanorods based on ZnO for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy are promising for the non-invasive and rapid detection of biomarkers and diagnosis of disease. However, optimization of nanorod and coating parameters is essential to their practical application. With the goal of establishing a baseline for early detection in biological applications, gold-coated ZnO nanorods were grown and coated to form porous structures. Prior to gold deposition, the grown nanorods were 30–50 nm in diameter and 500–600 nm in length. Gold coatings were grown on the nanorod structure to a series of thicknesses between 100 and 300 nm. A gold coating of 200 nm was found to optimize the Rhodamine B model analyte signal, while performance for rat urine depended on the biomarkers to be detected. These results establish design guidelines for future use of Au-ZnO nanorods in the study and early diagnosis of inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnosis in a Preclinical Model of Bladder Pain Syndrome Using a Au/ZnO Nanorod-based SERS Substrate
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020224 - 07 Feb 2019
Abstract
To evaluate the feasibility of ZnO nanorod-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) diagnostics for disease models, particularly for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), ZnO-based SERS sensing chips were developed and applied to an animal disease model. ZnO nanorods were grown to form nano-sized [...] Read more.
To evaluate the feasibility of ZnO nanorod-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) diagnostics for disease models, particularly for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), ZnO-based SERS sensing chips were developed and applied to an animal disease model. ZnO nanorods were grown to form nano-sized porous structures and coated with gold to facilitate size-selective biomarker detection. Raman spectra were acquired on a surface enhanced Raman substrate from the urine in a rat model of IC/BPS and analyzed using a statistical analysis method called principal component analysis (PCA). The nanorods grown after the ZnO seed deposition were 30 to 50 nm in diameter and 500 to 600 nm in length. A volume of gold corresponding to a thin film thickness of 100 nm was deposited on the grown nanorod structure. Raman spectroscopic signals were measured in the scattered region for nanometer biomarker detection to indicate IC/BPS. The Raman peaks for the control group and IC/BPS group are observed at 641, 683, 723, 873, 1002, 1030, and 1355 cm−1, which corresponded to various bonding types and compounds. The PCA results are plotted in 2D and 3D. The Raman signals and statistical analyses obtained from the nano-sized biomarkers of intractable inflammatory diseases demonstrate the possibility of an early diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetite-Supported Gold Nanostars for the Uptake and SERS Detection of Tetracycline
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010031 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) decorated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) have been prepared by using a seed growth method without the addition of surfactants or colloidal stabilizers. The hybrid nanomaterials were investigated as adsorbents for the uptake of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solutions and subsequent [...] Read more.
Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) decorated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) have been prepared by using a seed growth method without the addition of surfactants or colloidal stabilizers. The hybrid nanomaterials were investigated as adsorbents for the uptake of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solutions and subsequent detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Several parameters were investigated in order to optimize the performance of these hybrid platforms on the uptake and SERS detection of TC, including variable pH values and the effect of contact time on the removal of TC. The spatial distribution of TC and AuNS on the hybrid composites was accomplished by coupling SERS analysis with Raman imaging studies, allowing also for the determination of the detection limit for TC when dissolved in ultrapure water (10 nM) and in more complex aqueous matrices (1 μM). Attempts were also made to investigate the adsorption modes of the TC molecules at the surface of the metal NPs by taking into account the enhancement of the Raman bands in these different matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Raman Imaging Approach Using CD47 Antibody-Labeled SERS Nanoparticles for Identifying Breast Cancer and Its Potential to Guide Surgical Resection
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110953 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Raman spectroscopic imaging has shown great promise for improved cancer detection and localization with the use of tumor targeting surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles. With the ultrasensitive detection and multiplexing capabilities that SERS imaging has to offer, scientists have been investigating several [...] Read more.
Raman spectroscopic imaging has shown great promise for improved cancer detection and localization with the use of tumor targeting surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles. With the ultrasensitive detection and multiplexing capabilities that SERS imaging has to offer, scientists have been investigating several clinical applications that could benefit from this unique imaging strategy. Recently, there has been a push to develop new image-guidance tools for surgical resection to help surgeons sensitively and specifically identify tumor margins in real time. We hypothesized that SERS nanoparticles (NPs) topically applied to breast cancer resection margins have the potential to provide real-time feedback on the presence of residual cancer in the resection margins during lumpectomy. Here, we explore the ability of SERS nanoparticles conjugated with a cluster of differentiation-47 (CD47) antibody to target breast cancer. CD47 is a cell surface receptor that has recently been shown to be overexpressed on several solid tumor types. The binding potential of our CD47-labeled SERS nanoparticles was assessed using fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) on seven different human breast cancer cell lines, some of which were triple negative (negative expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)). Xenograft mouse models were also used to assess the ability of our Raman imaging system to identify tumor from normal tissue. A ratiometric imaging strategy was used to quantify specific vs. nonspecific probe binding, resulting in improved tumor-to-background ratios. FACS analysis showed that CD47-labeled SERS nanoparticles bound to seven different breast cancer cell lines at levels 12-fold to 70-fold higher than isotype control-labeled nanoparticles (p < 0.01), suggesting that our CD47-targeted nanoparticles actively bind to CD47 on breast cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer, topical application of CD47-targeted nanoparticles to excised normal and cancer tissue revealed increased binding of CD47-targeted nanoparticles on tumor relative to normal adjacent tissue. The findings of this study support further investigation and suggest that SERS nanoparticles topically applied to breast cancer could guide more complete surgical resection during lumpectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Open AccessArticle
Au-Decorated Dragonfly Wing Bioscaffold Arrays as Flexible Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Substrate for Simultaneous Determination of Pesticide Residues
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050289 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Rapid sampling and multicomponent analysis are vital in pesticide residue detection. In this work, we proposed a SERS platform to detect three kinds of pesticides on apple peels simultaneously by a straightforward “press and peel off” method. The flexible Au/dragonfly wing (Au/DW) substrate [...] Read more.
Rapid sampling and multicomponent analysis are vital in pesticide residue detection. In this work, we proposed a SERS platform to detect three kinds of pesticides on apple peels simultaneously by a straightforward “press and peel off” method. The flexible Au/dragonfly wing (Au/DW) substrate was obtained from sputtering Au nanoislands on DW bioscaffold arrays by a simple direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. The high-performance substrate exhibited a low limit of detection (LOD) to 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) (10−9 M), outstanding reproducibility (less than 12.15%), good stability and suitability in multifold pesticide residues detection. Considering its excellent sample collection efficiency, the Au/DW substrate was employed to solve critical pesticide residue problems for detection of acephate (APT), cypermethrin (CPT), tsumacide (MTMC) and their multiple components on apple peels. The results show that the LOD was 10−3 ng/cm2 for APT obtained on the apple surface with a calculation equation of y = 0.26x + 6.68 and a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.970. Additionally, the LOD values for CPT and MTMC were 10−3 ng/cm2 and 10−4 ng/cm2, respectively. The finding in this work may provide a promising biomimetic SERS platform for on-spot detection of other organic pollutants in the food industry and inenvironmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Raman Imaging of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030341 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The efficacy of pharmaceutical agents can be greatly improved through nanocarrier delivery. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical agents into a nanocarrier can enhance their bioavailability and biocompatibility, whilst also facilitating targeted drug delivery to specific locations within the body. However, detailed understanding of the in [...] Read more.
The efficacy of pharmaceutical agents can be greatly improved through nanocarrier delivery. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical agents into a nanocarrier can enhance their bioavailability and biocompatibility, whilst also facilitating targeted drug delivery to specific locations within the body. However, detailed understanding of the in vivo activity of the nanocarrier-drug conjugate is required prior to regulatory approval as a safe and effective treatment strategy. A comprehensive understanding of how nanocarriers travel to, and interact with, the intended target is required in order to optimize the dosing strategy, reduce potential off-target effects, and unwanted toxic effects. Raman spectroscopy has received much interest as a mechanism for label-free, non-invasive imaging of nanocarrier modes of action in vivo. Advanced Raman imaging techniques, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), are paving the way for rigorous evaluation of nanocarrier activity at the single-cell level. This review focuses on the development of Raman imaging techniques to study organic nanocarrier delivery in cells and tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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