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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 341;

Raman Imaging of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK
Edinburgh Cancer Research UK Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK
MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh BioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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The efficacy of pharmaceutical agents can be greatly improved through nanocarrier delivery. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical agents into a nanocarrier can enhance their bioavailability and biocompatibility, whilst also facilitating targeted drug delivery to specific locations within the body. However, detailed understanding of the in vivo activity of the nanocarrier-drug conjugate is required prior to regulatory approval as a safe and effective treatment strategy. A comprehensive understanding of how nanocarriers travel to, and interact with, the intended target is required in order to optimize the dosing strategy, reduce potential off-target effects, and unwanted toxic effects. Raman spectroscopy has received much interest as a mechanism for label-free, non-invasive imaging of nanocarrier modes of action in vivo. Advanced Raman imaging techniques, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), are paving the way for rigorous evaluation of nanocarrier activity at the single-cell level. This review focuses on the development of Raman imaging techniques to study organic nanocarrier delivery in cells and tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman imaging; nanocarriers; drug delivery; confocal Raman; hyperspectral imaging; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; stimulated Raman scattering Raman imaging; nanocarriers; drug delivery; confocal Raman; hyperspectral imaging; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; stimulated Raman scattering

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Vanden-Hehir, S.; Tipping, W.J.; Lee, M.; Brunton, V.G.; Williams, A.; Hulme, A.N. Raman Imaging of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 341.

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