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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030341

Raman Imaging of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery

1
EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK
2
Edinburgh Cancer Research UK Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK
3
MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh BioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Imaging Methods for Nanomaterials and Bioapplications)
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Abstract

The efficacy of pharmaceutical agents can be greatly improved through nanocarrier delivery. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical agents into a nanocarrier can enhance their bioavailability and biocompatibility, whilst also facilitating targeted drug delivery to specific locations within the body. However, detailed understanding of the in vivo activity of the nanocarrier-drug conjugate is required prior to regulatory approval as a safe and effective treatment strategy. A comprehensive understanding of how nanocarriers travel to, and interact with, the intended target is required in order to optimize the dosing strategy, reduce potential off-target effects, and unwanted toxic effects. Raman spectroscopy has received much interest as a mechanism for label-free, non-invasive imaging of nanocarrier modes of action in vivo. Advanced Raman imaging techniques, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), are paving the way for rigorous evaluation of nanocarrier activity at the single-cell level. This review focuses on the development of Raman imaging techniques to study organic nanocarrier delivery in cells and tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman imaging; nanocarriers; drug delivery; confocal Raman; hyperspectral imaging; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; stimulated Raman scattering Raman imaging; nanocarriers; drug delivery; confocal Raman; hyperspectral imaging; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; stimulated Raman scattering
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Vanden-Hehir, S.; Tipping, W.J.; Lee, M.; Brunton, V.G.; Williams, A.; Hulme, A.N. Raman Imaging of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 341.

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