Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Reynaldo Villalonga
Website
Guest Editor
Nanosensors & Nanomachine Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Interests: Electrochemical biosensors, optical nanosensors, mesoporous nanomachines, nanomaterials engineering
Dr. Alfredo Sanchez Sanchez
Website
Guest Editor
Complutense University. Chemistry Faculty. Plaza de las Ciencias s/n 28040 Madrid (SPAIN)
Interests: Nanomachines, molecular gates, drug delivery, nanosensors, electrochemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosensors are self-contained and integrated receptor–transducer analytical devices, in which a biological recognition element is in intimate contact or incorporated with a suitable transducer. During last few decades, biosensor technology has been empowered by the unique high surface area to volume ratio, biomolecule load capacity, easy preparation and functionalization, and optical, thermo-, electroconductive and catalytic properties of nanomaterials. In special, nanosized materials have significantly impacted in bioanalytical chemistry allowing the preparation of a great variety of biosensor devices with original three-dimensional architectures and excellent bioanalytical properties. Nanomaterials, used along or rationally combined as tailor-made hybrid or composite nanomaterials, have been largely employed as transduction, amplification and labelling elements to construct reliable and sensitive sensor devices for clinical, environmental, industrial and food analysis. In this context, special attention has been devoted to design original nanomaterials-based immunosensors and DNA biosensors, due to the relevance of these affinity sensor devices in biomedical applications.

This Special Issue aims to focus on the last advances in the development of innovative nanomaterials-based optical, electrochemical, thermal and piezoelectric immunosensors and DNA sensors. Special attention will be paid to new strategies for nanomaterials preparation and functionalization, oriented immobilization of DNA and antibody molecules, aptasensors, and design of label-free biosensing approaches in order to realize highly sensitive, selective and stable biosensors devices.

Prof. Reynaldo Villalonga Santana
Dr. Alfredo Sánchez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biosensor
  • nanomaterial
  • antibody
  • DNA
  • immunosensor
  • aptamer
  • immobilization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Design and Simple Assembly of Gold Nanostar Bioconjugates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Immunoassays
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111561 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Immunoassays using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy are especially interesting on account not only of their increased sensitivity, but also due to its easy translation to point-of-care formats. The bases for these assays are bioconjugates of polyclonal antibodies and anisotropic gold nanoparticles functionalized with a [...] Read more.
Immunoassays using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy are especially interesting on account not only of their increased sensitivity, but also due to its easy translation to point-of-care formats. The bases for these assays are bioconjugates of polyclonal antibodies and anisotropic gold nanoparticles functionalized with a Raman reporter. These bioconjugates, once loaded with the antigen analyte, can react on a sandwich format with the same antibodies immobilized on a surface. This surface can then be used for detection, on a microfluidics or immunochromatographic platform. Here, we have assembled bioconjugates of gold nanostars functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, and anti-horseradish peroxidase antibodies. The assembly was by simple incubation, and agarose gel electrophoresis determined a high gold nanostar to antibody binding constant. The functionality of the bioconjugates is easy to determine since the respective antigen presents peroxidase enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the chosen antibody is a generic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, opening the application of these principles to other antibody-antigen systems. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy analysis of these bioconjugates indicated antigen detection down to 50 µU of peroxidase activity. All steps of conjugation were fully characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ -Potential, scanning electron microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the latter technique, a proof-of-concept was established for the proposed immunoassay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Colorimetric Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with CuO Nanoparticles as Signal Labels Based on the Growth of Gold Nanoparticles In Situ
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010004 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A colorimetric immunoassay has been reported for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection with CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) as signal labels. The method is based on Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by O2 to depress the formation of colored gold nanoparticles [...] Read more.
A colorimetric immunoassay has been reported for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detection with CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) as signal labels. The method is based on Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by O2 to depress the formation of colored gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Specifically, HAuCl4 can be reduced by AA to produce AuNPs in situ. In the presence of target, CuO NPs-labeled antibodies were captured via the sandwich-type immunoreaction. After dissolving CuO nanoparticles with acid, the released Cu2+ catalyzed the oxidation of AA by O2, thus depressing the generation of AuNPs. To demonstrate the accuracy of the colorimetric assay, the released Cu2+ was further determined by a fluorescence probe. The colorimetric immunoassay shows a linear relationship for PSA detection in the range of 0.1~10 ng/mL. The detection limit of 0.05 ng/mL is comparable to that obtained by other CuO NPs-based methods. The high throughput, simplicity, and sensitivity of the proposed colorimetric immunoassay exhibited good applicability for assays of serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dendrimers as Soft Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Immunosensors
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121745 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Electrochemical immunosensors are antibody-based affinity biosensors with a high impact on clinical, environmental, food, and pharmaceutical analysis. In general, the analytical performance of these devices is critically determined by the materials and reagents used for their construction, signal production and amplification. Dendrimers are [...] Read more.
Electrochemical immunosensors are antibody-based affinity biosensors with a high impact on clinical, environmental, food, and pharmaceutical analysis. In general, the analytical performance of these devices is critically determined by the materials and reagents used for their construction, signal production and amplification. Dendrimers are monodisperse and highly branched polymers with three-dimensional structures widely employed as “soft” nanomaterials in electrochemical immunosensor technology. This review provides an overview on the state-of-the-art in dendrimer-based electrochemical immunosensors, focusing on those using polyamidoamine and poly (propylene imine) dendrimers. Special emphasis is given to the most original methods recently reported for the construction of immunosensor architectures incorporating dendrimers, as well as to novel sensing approaches based on dendrimer-assisted signal enhancement strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials towards Biosensing of Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarkers
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121663 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable and highly debilitating condition characterized by the progressive degeneration and/or death of nerve cells, which leads to manifestation of disabilities in cognitive functioning. In recent years, the development of biosensors for determination of AD’s main biomarkers has [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable and highly debilitating condition characterized by the progressive degeneration and/or death of nerve cells, which leads to manifestation of disabilities in cognitive functioning. In recent years, the development of biosensors for determination of AD’s main biomarkers has made remarkable progress, particularly based on the tremendous advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The unique and outstanding properties of nanomaterials (such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold, silver and magnetic nanoparticles, polymers and quantum dots) have been contributing to enhance the electrochemical and optical behavior of transducers while offering a suitable matrix for the immobilization of biological recognition elements. Therefore, optical and electrochemical immuno- and DNA-biosensors with higher sensitivity, selectivity and longer stability have been reported. Nevertheless, strategies based on the detection of multiple analytes still need to be improved, as they will play a crucial role in minimizing misdiagnosis. This review aims to provide insights into the conjugation of nanomaterials with different transducers highlighting their crucial role in the construction of biosensors for detection of AD main biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical DNA Biosensors Based on Labeling with Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101361 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
This work reviews the field of DNA biosensors based on electrochemical determination of nanoparticle labels. These labeling platforms contain the attachment of metal nanoparticles (NPs) or quantum dots (QDs) on the target DNA or on a biorecognition reporting probe. Following the development of [...] Read more.
This work reviews the field of DNA biosensors based on electrochemical determination of nanoparticle labels. These labeling platforms contain the attachment of metal nanoparticles (NPs) or quantum dots (QDs) on the target DNA or on a biorecognition reporting probe. Following the development of DNA bioassay, the nanotags are oxidized to ions, which are determined by voltammetric methods, such as pulse voltammetry (PV) and stripping voltammetry (SV). The synergistic effects of NPs amplification (as each nanoprobe releases a large number of detectable ions) and the inherent sensitivity of voltammetric techniques (e.g., thanks to the preconcentration step of SV) leads to the construction of ultrasensitive, low cost, miniaturized, and integrated biodevices. This review focuses on accomplishments in DNA sensing using voltammetric determination of nanotags (such as gold and silver NPs, and Cd- and Pb-based QDs), includes published works on integrated three electrode biodevices and paper-based biosystems, and discusses strategies for multiplex DNA assays and signal enhancement procedures. Besides, this review mentions the electroactive NP synthesis procedures and their conjugation protocols with biomolecules that enable their function as labels in DNA electrochemical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Strategies for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060861 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 28
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles are popularly used in biological and chemical sensors and their applications owing to their fascinating chemical, optical, and catalytic properties. Particularly, the use of gold nanoparticles is widespread in colorimetric assays because of their simple, cost-effective fabrication, and ease of use. [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles are popularly used in biological and chemical sensors and their applications owing to their fascinating chemical, optical, and catalytic properties. Particularly, the use of gold nanoparticles is widespread in colorimetric assays because of their simple, cost-effective fabrication, and ease of use. More importantly, the gold nanoparticle sensor response is a visual change in color, which allows easy interpretation of results. Therefore, many studies of gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric methods have been reported, and some review articles published over the past years. Most reviews focus exclusively on a single gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric technique for one analyte of interest. In this review, we focus on the current developments in different colorimetric assay designs for the sensing of various chemical and biological samples. We summarize and classify the sensing strategies and mechanism analyses of gold nanoparticle-based detection. Additionally, typical examples of recently developed gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric methods and their applications in the detection of various analytes are presented and discussed comprehensively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials-Based Colorimetric Immunoassays
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030316 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention due to their simplicity and high efficiency. With the achievements of nanotechnology and nanoscience, nanomaterials-based colorimetric immunoassays have been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to conventional colorimetric enzyme-linked immunoassays. This review is focused [...] Read more.
Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention due to their simplicity and high efficiency. With the achievements of nanotechnology and nanoscience, nanomaterials-based colorimetric immunoassays have been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to conventional colorimetric enzyme-linked immunoassays. This review is focused on the progress in colorimetric immunoassays with the signal amplification of nanomaterials, including nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes to catalyze the chromogenic reactions, analyte-induced aggregation or size/morphology change of nanomaterials, nanomaterials as the carriers for loading enzyme labels, and chromogenic reactions induced by the constituent elements released from nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Immunosensors and DNA Sensors)
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