This work reviews the field of DNA biosensors based on electrochemical determination of nanoparticle labels. These labeling platforms contain the attachment of metal nanoparticles (NPs) or quantum dots (QDs) on the target DNA or on a biorecognition reporting probe. Following the development of DNA bioassay, the nanotags are oxidized to ions, which are determined by voltammetric methods, such as pulse voltammetry (PV) and stripping voltammetry (SV). The synergistic effects of NPs amplification (as each nanoprobe releases a large number of detectable ions) and the inherent sensitivity of voltammetric techniques (e.g., thanks to the preconcentration step of SV) leads to the construction of ultrasensitive, low cost, miniaturized, and integrated biodevices. This review focuses on accomplishments in DNA sensing using voltammetric determination of nanotags (such as gold and silver NPs, and Cd- and Pb-based QDs), includes published works on integrated three electrode biodevices and paper-based biosystems, and discusses strategies for multiplex DNA assays and signal enhancement procedures. Besides, this review mentions the electroactive NP synthesis procedures and their conjugation protocols with biomolecules that enable their function as labels in DNA electrochemical biosensors.
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