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Special Issue "Starch in Food Products"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Hyun-Jung Chung
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
Interests: starch chemistry; structure–function relationship of starch; development of functional starch-based foods; novel utilization of carbohydrate in food products; food applications of modified starches; development of gluten-free food products
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Amongst the biopolymers in nature, starch has received the most attention with respect to its nutritive value and structure–function relations in food and non-food industrial products and applications. Starch and products derived from starch are the major components in food products and could be used to affect the physical properties of many foods. Starch from different sources and genotypes within sources showed substantial diversity in their composition, structure of amylose and amylopectin, and structural arrangement of starch granules, which contribute to different physicochemical properties and thus different functionalities. Understanding the relationship between starch structure and functionalities in food systems is important. Research on the effect of chemical, enzymatic, and physical modifications of native starches has further improved its properties and expanded the spectrum of starch applications in food systems. In addition, various physical processing techniques such as heat, shear, and moisture content highly influence the structure of starch molecules and interactions with other bio-molecules and food additives as well as the sensory and nutritional qualities of final food products. The impact of these interactions on the sensory and nutritional qualities of foods and their safety has been the focus for a number of current research studies. The current research is also geared towards the importance of starch in human nutrition and health. A new challenge for the food industry is to supply consumers with starch-containing foods with improved nutritional quality. The different forms of existence of starch in foods and novel food processing with respect to its digestibility have received tremendous research focus. This Special Issue of Molecules aims to acquire in-depth knowledge about some of the aforementioned research concepts in starch-derived application in food products.

Assoc. Prof. Hyun-Jung Chung
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Starch functionality
  • Starch structure
  • Food application of starch
  • Novel starch development
  • Modified starch
  • Grain-based products
  • Novel food processing in starch-based foods
  • Starch and health

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variation of Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) Landraces of Taiwan
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4323; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234323 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Foxtail millet is considered a ‘smart food’ because of nutrient richness and resilience to environments. A diversity panel of 92 foxtail millet landraces preserved by Taiwan indigenous peoples containing amylose content (AC) in the range of 0.7% to 16.9% exhibited diverse physiochemical properties [...] Read more.
Foxtail millet is considered a ‘smart food’ because of nutrient richness and resilience to environments. A diversity panel of 92 foxtail millet landraces preserved by Taiwan indigenous peoples containing amylose content (AC) in the range of 0.7% to 16.9% exhibited diverse physiochemical properties revealed by a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). AC was significantly correlated with 5 RVA parameters, and some RVA parameters were also highly correlated with one another. In comparison to rice, foxtail millet contained less starch (65.9–73.1%) and no significant difference in totals of resistant starch (RS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), hydrolysis index (HI), and expected glycemic index (eGI) according to in vitro digestibility assays of raw flour with similar AC. RS was significantly positively correlated with AC and four RVA parameters, cold paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT), implying that suitable food processing to alter physicochemical properties of foxtail millet might mitigate hyperglycemia. This investigation of pasting properties and digestibility of diverse foxtail millet germplasm revealed much variation and showed potential for multi-dimensional utilizations in daily staple food and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Addition of Soluble Dietary Fiber and Green Tea Polyphenols on Acrylamide Formation and In Vitro Starch Digestibility in Baked Starchy Matrices
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203674 - 12 Oct 2019
Abstract
Starch digestibility may be affected by food microstructural changes, as well as by specific interactions with some biomolecules, such as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs). It is well-known that acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic compound formed in starchy food products processed [...] Read more.
Starch digestibility may be affected by food microstructural changes, as well as by specific interactions with some biomolecules, such as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs). It is well-known that acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic compound formed in starchy food products processed at temperatures above 120 °C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of SDF and green tea polyphenols (GTP) on AA formation and in vitro starch digestibility in baked starchy matrices. The formulations were prepared using gluten and wheat starch, ensuring ~40 ± 2% (wet basis, w.b.) moisture in the doughs. In some samples, 7.5% (dry basis, d.b.) of starch was replaced with inulin (IN), polydextrose (PD) or partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and/or with GTP at 1% (d.b). Acrylamide was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the in vitro starch digestibility using the Englyst method. The GTP was able to reduce AA content by ~48%, and a combination of IN-GTP allowed it to be reduced by up to ~64%, revealing the lowest rapidly available glucose content (~17 mg/g glucose). While a PD-GTP mixture reduced the AA content by around ~57% and gave the highest unavailable glucose fraction (~74 mg/g glucose) compared to the control. This study showed how functional ingredients could be used to develop successfully healthier starchy bakery foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Three Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) Starches: A Comparison Study
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162973 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
The aim of this work was to compare the composition and physicochemical properties (SEM, XRD, solubility, swelling power, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze–thaw stability, thermal property, and pasting property) of three Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) starches (CYYS-1, CYYS-2, and CYYS-3) in Yunlong [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to compare the composition and physicochemical properties (SEM, XRD, solubility, swelling power, paste clarity, retrogradation, freeze–thaw stability, thermal property, and pasting property) of three Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) starches (CYYS-1, CYYS-2, and CYYS-3) in Yunlong town, Haikou, Hainan Province, China. Our results show that all the CYYS gave a typical C-type X-ray diffraction pattern. The swelling power of CYYS varied from 10.79% to 30.34%, whereas solubility index was in the range of 7.84–4.55%. The freeze–thaw stability of each CYYS showed a contrary tendency with its amylose content. In addition, CYYS-3 showed the highest To (81.1 °C), Tp (84.8 °C), Tc (91.2 °C), and ΔH (14.1 J/g). The pasting temperature of CYYS-1 increased significantly with sucrose addition. NaCl could inhibit the swelling power of CYYS. There were significant decreases in pasting temperature and pasting time of CYYS when pH decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Expanded Snack of Rice Starch Enriched with Amaranth by Extrusion Process
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132430 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to obtain a second-generation snack by extrusion from the by-product of rice milling enriched with amaranth. The raw material used was amaranth flour (AF), rice starch (NS) and modified rice starch (MS), which were evaluated by the analysis of substitution [...] Read more.
This study aimed to obtain a second-generation snack by extrusion from the by-product of rice milling enriched with amaranth. The raw material used was amaranth flour (AF), rice starch (NS) and modified rice starch (MS), which were evaluated by the analysis of substitution degree (SD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscosity (RVA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The snacks were expanded by extrusion and microwave oven, as a reference method. The samples were evaluated in hardness (D), expansion index (EI), apparent density (DAP), and protein content (P). Afterward, the optimized samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and resistant starch (RS). During the thermal characterization, a clear trend in the decrement in gelatinization temperatures was observed (78.35 to 63.90 °C in NS and MS respectively). The curves obtained in RVA analyses showed typical behavior of native (6.35 Pa.s) and extruded starches (2.88 Pa.s), with a significant decrease in viscosity peak. Through the analysis of FT-IR, the introduction of the functional acetyl group (stretching at a wavelength of 1735 cm−1) was corroborated. Snack samples results showed a maximum hardness in MS, with a value of 121 N, and the NS (100%) presented the highest EI value (1.41). The lowest DAP values were obtained for the MS (0.48 g/cm3, 100%) and AF (0.49 g/cm3, 100%) samples. P increased to a higher concentration of AF. In the optimum formulation, the SEM image showed that the expanded microwave sample increased the porosity and obtained an RS value of 8.2%. The formulation obtained in the present study presents high characteristics to be used in the development of a healthy snack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural, Physical, and Antifungal Characterization of Starch Edible Films Added with Nanocomposites and Mexican Oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) Essential Oil
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122340 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural, physical, and antifungal characteristics of starch edible films added with nanocomposites and Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil (EO). Starch edible films were formulated with Mexican oregano EO (0%, 1%, or [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural, physical, and antifungal characteristics of starch edible films added with nanocomposites and Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil (EO). Starch edible films were formulated with Mexican oregano EO (0%, 1%, or 2% v/v) and bentonite or halloysite (2%). Physical properties such as L* (luminosity), hue, film thickness, and O2 and CO2 permeability were determined. Structural analysis was carried out via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus spp. was evaluated. The addition of EO and nanocomposites reduced luminosity, providing color to the edible films. Film thickness increased through the addition of EO concentration. O2 and CO2 permeability was increased by bentonite/EO films, and for halloysite films, CO2 permeability decreased as EO concentration increased. The addition of EO with both nanocomposites shows an evident morphological change in film structure, decreasing pore density and increasing pore size. In general, Mexican oregano EO added to edible starch films has an adequate fungicidal effect. The most sensitive microorganism tested was A. niger. Edible films added with Mexican oregano EO and nanocomposites show better physical and antifungal properties due to an adequate structural change in the biopolymer matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
The Properties and Tortilla Making of Corn Flour from Enzymatic Wet-Milling
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112137 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Corn flour was prepared by wet-milling with the treatment of neutral protease and the gelatinization, thermal and rheological properties were analyzed. Tortilla was prepared with enzyme treated corn flour (ECF) and additives (xanthan gum and cassava starch) and the properties were analyzed. Compared [...] Read more.
Corn flour was prepared by wet-milling with the treatment of neutral protease and the gelatinization, thermal and rheological properties were analyzed. Tortilla was prepared with enzyme treated corn flour (ECF) and additives (xanthan gum and cassava starch) and the properties were analyzed. Compared with dry-milling corn flour (DCF) and wet-milling corn flour (WCF), the ECF had less average particle size (16.74 μm), higher peak viscosity and higher final viscosity of 2997 cP and 3300 cP, respectively. The thermal properties showed that ECF had higher ∆H and lower To, Tp and Tc. The G′ of ECF gel (6%, w/w) was higher than that of DCF gel and WCF gel. Dynamic viscoelastic measurement indicated that the tortillas made of ECF had lower G′ and G″ over the frequency range (0.1–100 rad/s) after adding xanthan gum and cassava starch. The gel structure of tortillas made of ECF was homogeneous in distribution of pores. The gelatinization, thermal and rheological properties of corn flour were improved by addition of neutral protease. The addition of xanthan gum and cassava starch helped to make the tortilla with porous structure and good sensory quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Characteristics and In Vitro Digestibility of Malic Acid-Treated Corn Starch with Different pH Conditions
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101900 - 17 May 2019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH value on the in vitro digestibility of malic acid-treated corn starch in relation to its structural properties. Varying pH values (1.5–8.5) of 2 M malic acid solution were combined with corn [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH value on the in vitro digestibility of malic acid-treated corn starch in relation to its structural properties. Varying pH values (1.5–8.5) of 2 M malic acid solution were combined with corn starch in a forced-air oven at 130 °C for 12 h. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), carbonyl groups were detected in malic acid-treated corn starch, indicating cross-linking through esterification. As the pH value of malic acid-treated corn starch decreased from 8.5 to 1.5, the resistant starch content increased from 18.2 to 74.8%. This was the result of an increased degree of substitution and was maintained after gelatinization. The granular structure of malic acid-treated corn starches was not destroyed, and the starches maintained birefringence. This malic acid-treated corn starch could be utilized in heat processed foods such as bread and cookies as well as in products with reduced calories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Microencapsulation of Elsholtzia ciliata Herb Ethanolic Extract by Spray-Drying: Impact of Resistant-Maltodextrin Complemented with Sodium Caseinate, Skim Milk, and Beta-Cyclodextrin on the Quality of Spray-Dried Powders
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081461 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Spray-drying is the most popular encapsulation method used for the stabilization and protection of biologically active compounds from various environmental conditions, such as oxidation, moisture, pH, and temperature. Spray-drying increases the bioavailability of the natural active compounds and improves the solubility of low-soluble [...] Read more.
Spray-drying is the most popular encapsulation method used for the stabilization and protection of biologically active compounds from various environmental conditions, such as oxidation, moisture, pH, and temperature. Spray-drying increases the bioavailability of the natural active compounds and improves the solubility of low-soluble compounds. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different wall materials and optimize wall material solution’s composition on physicochemical properties of microcapsules loaded with phenolics, extract rich in volatile compounds and essential oil from Elsholtzia ciliata herb. For encapsulation of elsholtzia and dehydroelsholtzia ketones, more suitable wall materials were used—beta-cyclodextrin and sodium caseinate. Four phenolics—sodium caseinate, skim milk, beta-cyclodextrin, and resistant-maltodextrin—were used. A D-optimal mixture composition design was used to evaluate the effect of wall material solution’s composition using sodium caseinate (0.5–1 g), skim milk (6–10 g), resistant-maltodextrin (8–12 g), and beta-cyclodextrin (0.5–1 g) for the encapsulation efficiency, drying yield, and physicochemical properties. The optimal mixture composition was 0.54 g of sodium caseinate, 10 g of skim milk, 8.96 g of resistant-maltodextrin, and 0.5 g of beta-cyclodextrin. These encapsulating agents had a good performance in the microencapsulation of E. ciliata ethanolic extracts by the spray-drying technique. It is proven that the produced microparticles have a good potential to be included in various pharmaceutical forms or food supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maltodextrins on the Kinetics of Lycopene and Chlorogenic Acid Degradation in Dried Tomato
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061042 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Maltodextrins (MD) are frequently used as processing aids in tomato drying. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of MD on the stability of lycopene and chlorogenic acid, which are the main lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in [...] Read more.
Maltodextrins (MD) are frequently used as processing aids in tomato drying. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of MD on the stability of lycopene and chlorogenic acid, which are the main lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in processed tomato, respectively. Tomato powder added with 10% MD (dextrose equivalents, DE 12) and a control tomato powder were stored in the water activity (aw) range 0.17–0.56, for 180 d at 30 °C. At the aw level of 0.17, which was below the monolayer moisture content (Mo), chlorogenic acid was stable, while lycopene content decreased faster in tomato added with MD than in control tomato, probably due to a decrease in matrix hydrophilicity and greater oxygen diffusion in the oil phase. Maximum stability occurred in both tomato powders at aw of 0.3, that was in close proximity to Mo (first-order rate constant for lycopene, k = 7.0 × 10−3 d−1 in tomato added with MD). At high aw levels, MD increased the rate of lycopene degradation with respect to the control, possibly by hampering its regeneration by chlorogenic acid, which conversely was found to be more stable than in the control tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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