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Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Photochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Scott Reed

Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box 194, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanoparticle-lipid conjugates as membrane mimics; nanomaterials for phototherapeutic applications; biosensors; aptamers; green synthesis
Guest Editor
Prof. Jung-Jae Lee

Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Campus Box 194, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, Colorado 80217, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: theranostic nanomedicine; stimuli responsive drug delivery systems; biomaterials; in vivo optical imaging; molecular recognition; polymeric particles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials can enhance the delivery and performance of phototherapeutic agents. Furthermore, the unique properties of nanomaterials mean that they can act as phototherapeutics or adjuvants to phototherapy. Recent advances in the areas of phototherapy using nanomaterials have laid the groundwork for vibrant new interdisciplinary research. We look forward to receiving contributions in these research areas that push the boundaries of this exciting new field.

Prof. Scott Reed
Prof. Jung-Jae Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Theranostic nanomedicine (diagnostics and therapy)
  • Targeted phototherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Photothermal therapy (Photothermolysis)
  • Nanoparticle-photosensitizer interactions
  • Nanoparticle delivery of phototherapeutics
  • Light-sensitive drug delivery systems

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Curcumin-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082075
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
PDF Full-text (19653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate its photodynamic effects on a murine model of OC. Anionic and cationic CUR-NP is synthesized using poly-lactic acid and dextran sulfate and then characterized. Female mice are immunosuppressed and inoculated with Candida albicans (Ca) to induce OC. aPDT is performed by applying CUR-NP or free CUR on the dorsum of the tongue, followed by blue light irradiation for five consecutive days. Nystatin is used as positive control. Afterward, Ca are recovered and cultivated. Animals are euthanized for histological, immunohistochemical, and DNA damage evaluation. Encapsulation in NP improves the water solubility of CUR. Nystatin shows the highest reduction of Ca, followed by aPDT mediated by free CUR, which results in immunolabelling of cytokeratins closer to those observed for healthy animals. Anionic CUR-NP does not show antifungal effect, and cationic CUR-NP reduces Ca even in the absence of light. DNA damage is associated with Ca infection. Consecutive aPDT application is a safe treatment for OC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Utilisation of Targeted Nanoparticle Photosensitiser Drug Delivery Systems for the Enhancement of Photodynamic Therapy
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102628
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
PDF Full-text (4801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS
[...] Read more.
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is excited to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction. However, the efficacy of ROS generation for tumour damage is highly dependent on the uptake of the PS in tumour cells. Thus, PS selective/targeted uptake and delivery in tumour cells is a crucial factor in PDT cancer drug absorption studies. Generally, within non-targeted drug delivery mechanisms, only minor amounts of PS are able to passively accumulate in tumour sites (due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect) and the remainder distributes into healthy tissues, causing unwanted side effects and poor treatment prognosis. Thus, to improve the efficacy of PDT cancer treatment, research is currently focused on the development of specific receptor-based PS-nanocarrier platform drugs, which promote the active uptake and absorption of PS drugs in tumour sites only, avoiding unwanted side effects, as well as treatment enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to focus on current actively targeted or passively delivered PS nanoparticle drug delivery systems, that have been previously investigated for the PDT treatment of cancer and so to deduce their overall efficacy and recent advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Revisiting Current Photoactive Materials for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102424
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial infection is a severe concern, requiring the use of significant amounts of antimicrobials/biocides, not only in the hospital setting, but also in other environments. The increasing use of antimicrobial drugs and the rapid adaptability of microorganisms to these agents, have contributed to
[...] Read more.
Microbial infection is a severe concern, requiring the use of significant amounts of antimicrobials/biocides, not only in the hospital setting, but also in other environments. The increasing use of antimicrobial drugs and the rapid adaptability of microorganisms to these agents, have contributed to a sharp increase of antimicrobial resistance. It is obvious that the development of new strategies to combat planktonic and biofilm-embedded microorganisms is required. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is being recognized as an effective method to inactivate a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including those resistant to conventional antimicrobials. In the last few years, the development and biological assessment of new photosensitizers for PDI were accompanied by their immobilization in different supports having in mind the extension of the photodynamic principle to new applications, such as the disinfection of blood, water, and surfaces. In this review, we intended to cover a significant amount of recent work considering a diversity of photosensitizers and supports to achieve an effective photoinactivation. Special attention is devoted to the chemistry behind the preparation of the photomaterials by recurring to extensive examples, illustrating the design strategies. Additionally, we highlighted the biological challenges of each formulation expecting that the compiled information could motivate the development of other effective photoactive materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Open AccessReview Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092210
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. MNBs contain gas cores due to which they are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be
[...] Read more.
Microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. MNBs contain gas cores due to which they are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in various sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop owing to an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have shown more resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapies. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depends on the effective accumulation of photosensitizer drug in tumors and the availability of oxygen in the tumor to generate reactive oxygen species. MNBs have been shown to reverse hypoxic conditions, degradation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein, and increase tissue oxygen levels. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and shell compositions of micro/nanobubbles and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. Methods of functionalization of MNBs, their ability to deliver oxygen and drugs, incorporation of photosensitizers and potential application of photo-triggered theranostics, have also been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the paper: Review
Title: Utilization of Targeted Nanoparticle Photosensitizer Drug Delivery Systems for the Enhancement of Photodynamic Therapy
Authors: Cherie Ann Kruger PhD 1 and Heidi Abrahamse PhD 2,*
1. Research Associate Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; cherier@uj.ac.za
2. Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box: 17011, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
*Correspondence: habrahamse@uj.ac.za; Tel.: +27-11-559-6550; Fax: +27-11-559-6884
Abstract: The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitizer (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is excited to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction. However, the efficacy of ROS generation for tumour damage is highly dependent on the uptake of the PS in tumour cells. Thus PS selective / targeted uptake and delivery in tumour cells is a crucial factor in PDT cancer drug absorption studies. Generally, within non-targeted drug delivery mechanisms, only minor amounts of PS are able to passively accumulates in tumour sites (due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect) and the remainder distributes into healthy tissues, causing unwanted side effects and poor treatment prognosis. Thus to improve the efficacy of PDT cancer treatment, research is currently focused on the development of specific receptor based photosynthetic nanocarrier platform drugs, which promotes the active uptake and absorption of PS drugs in tumour sites only, avoiding unwanted side effects, as well as treatment enhancement. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to focus on current actively targeted PS nanoparticle drug delivery systems, that have been previously investigated for the PDT treatment of cancer and so to deduce their overall efficacy and recent advancements.
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; cancer; nanotechnology; drug delivery systems

Title: Revisiting Current Photoactive Materials for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy
Authors: Mariana Q. Mesquita 1,2, Cristina J. Dias 1, Maria G.P.M.S. Neves 1, Adelaide Almeida 3, M. Amparo F. Faustino 1
Affiliation: 1 Department of Chemistry and QOPNA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2 Department of Biomedical Sciences and iBiMED, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3 Departament of Biology CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Abstract: Microbial infection is considered a severe human health concern, requiring the use of significant amounts of antimicrobials/biocides not only in hospital setting but also in other environments. However, the release of antimicrobials/biocides into the environment may induce new hazards to human health and environmental problems. The increasing use of these drugs and the rapid adaptability of microorganisms to these antimicrobial agents, has contributed to a sharp increase of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, it is of general consensus that the development of new strategies to combat planktonic as well as biofilm-embedded microorganisms is required. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), also referred as photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI), is a recently strategy that is being recognized as an effective method to inactivate a broad spectrum of pathogens, including microorganisms that are highly resistant to conventional antimicrobials and those that form biofilms. In the last years, the development and biological assessment of new molecules for PDI has grown considerably. Herein, we introduce several combinations of supports and PSs that have been shown to be effective in photoinactivating microorganisms. We mainly focus our attention in recent, innovative photoactive materials, molecular designs, and modifications that have been employed for targeted and effective control of microorganisms.

Type: Review
Title: Applications of Micro/Nanobubbles to Reverse Hypoxia: A potential approach to enhance Photodynamic Therapy & Photoacoustic Imaging
Authors: Muhammad Saad Khan, Jangsun Hwang and Jonghoon Choi*
Affiliation: School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul Korea 06974; *Email: Abstract: Micro and nanobubbles can be prepared using variety of shells like phospholipids, polymers, proteins and surfactants. They are inherently echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in variety of sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop due to the imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have demonstrated to be more resistant to chemo, radio and photodynamic therapies. Especially the efficacy of photodynamic therapy is dependent on the availability of oxygen in tumor to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Micro/nanobubbles have been demonstrated to reverse hypoxic conditions and increase tissue oxygen level. This review will summarize synthesis methods and the shell composition of micro/nanobubbles, and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. In addition, the shortcomings and prospects of engineering micro/nanobubbles would be discussed especially for their potential usage in photodynamic therapy.
Keywords: Microbubbles; Nanobubbles; Photoacoustic imaging; Ultrasonic imaging; ROS; Oxygen delivery

Title: Photosensitive Polymeric Drug Nanocarrier in Biomedical Application
Author: Er-Yuan Chiang
Affiliation: Taipei Medical university, Taipei, Taiwan

Type: Review
Title: Tumor photothermal therapy employing the nanocomposites composed of photothermal inorganic nanoparticles and photothermal polymers
Author: Hao Zhang
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed the booming increase of the new methods for tumor treatment, which are considered to overcome the current limitation of low treating efficacy, tumor recurrence and severe side effects. Among a variety of novel therapeutic methods, photothermal therapy, employing nanometer-sized agents as the heat generators under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation to ablate tumors, opens a new door for noninvasive tumor treatments with minimal side effects. Although many nanomaterials possess photothermal effects, inorganic nanoparticles and polymers are most competitive alternatives with the consideration of high photothermal performance and good biocompatibility. In this review, we summarized the tumor photothermal therapy using the nanocomposites composed of photothermal inorganic nanoparticles and photothermal polymers. Light extinction capability and photothermal transduction efficiency were adopted to evaluate the photothermal performance of nanocomposites. Because polymer coating was capable to improve tumor uptake rate, blood circulation duration, biodistribution, biosecurity and the tumor treating efficacy, the nanocomposites should be designed with inorganic core and polymer shell. Such structure could fulfill the requirement of high photothermal performance and good biocompatibility, making it possible to achieve complete ablation for shallow and small tumors under the safe limitation of NIR laser power density.
Keywords: nanocomposites; photothermal therapy; inorganic nanoparticles; photothermal polymers; hyperthermia

Type: Review
Title: Improving phototherapeutic efficiency of nanomaterials by targeting mitochondria
Authors: Fengming Lin, Fu-Gen Wu
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Abstract: As tumor and cellular targeting of nanomaterials has been extensively explored to enhance their efficacy, targeting subcellular structures (or organelles) like mitochondria and nucleus are increasingly receiving great attention as novel and powerful strategies to improve the phototherapeutic efficiency of the nanomaterials towards cancer. Particularly, mitochondria are of great interest, for they play an essential role in cellular apoptosis, and are relevant to chemoresistance and tumor progression found in cancer stem cells. Furthermore, mitochondria are a major player in many cellular processes and are highly sensitive to heat, hyperthermia and reactive oxygen species, serving as excellent spots for phototherapy. In this review, we will focus on the recent advancements of mitochondria-targeting nanomaterials in both photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy. The combination of mitochondria-targeting phototherapy with other anticancer strategies will be summarized. Also, we will discuss both the challenges currently faced by mitochondria-based cancer phototherapy and the promises it holds.
Keywords: Nanomedicine, Cancer therapy, PDT, PTT, Subcellular organelle-targeting

Title: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy mediated by curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles in a murine model of oral candidiasis
Author: Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima
Affiliation: Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract: Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), and nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study was to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) and to evaluate its photodynamic effects on a murine model of OC. Anionic and cationic CUR-NP was synthesized using poly-lactic acid, and dextran sulfate, and characterized. Female mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with Candida albicans (Ca) to induce OC. aPDT was performed by applying CUR-NP or free CUR on the dorsum of tongue followed by irradiation at 37.5 J/cm2 (455 nm) for 5 consecutive days. Nystatin was used as positive control. Afterwards, Ca were recovered and cultivated. Animals were euthanatized for histological, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL evaluation. Encapsulation in NP improved the water solubility of CUR. Nystatin showed the highest reduction of Ca, followed by aPDT mediated by free CUR, which resulted in immunolabelling of cytokeratins 13 and 14 closer to those observed for healthy animals. Anionic CUR-NP did not show antifungal effect, and cationic CUR-NP reduced Ca even in the absence of light. DNA damage was associated with Ca infection. Consecutive aPDT application was a safe treatment for OC.

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