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Open AccessReview

Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics

1
School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
2
Division of Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
4
Department of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
5
Department of Bionano Engingeering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092210
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
Microbubbles and nanobubbles (MNBs) can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. MNBs contain gas cores due to which they are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in various sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop owing to an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have shown more resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapies. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depends on the effective accumulation of photosensitizer drug in tumors and the availability of oxygen in the tumor to generate reactive oxygen species. MNBs have been shown to reverse hypoxic conditions, degradation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α protein, and increase tissue oxygen levels. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and shell compositions of micro/nanobubbles and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. Methods of functionalization of MNBs, their ability to deliver oxygen and drugs, incorporation of photosensitizers and potential application of photo-triggered theranostics, have also been discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbubbles; nanobubbles; photoacoustic imaging; ultrasonic imaging; reactive oxygen species (ROS); oxygen delivery microbubbles; nanobubbles; photoacoustic imaging; ultrasonic imaging; reactive oxygen species (ROS); oxygen delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.S.; Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Choi, Y.; Kim, K.; Koo, H.-J.; Hong, J.W.; Choi, J. Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics. Molecules 2018, 23, 2210.

AMA Style

Khan MS, Hwang J, Lee K, Choi Y, Kim K, Koo H-J, Hong JW, Choi J. Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics. Molecules. 2018; 23(9):2210.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Muhammad S.; Hwang, Jangsun; Lee, Kyungwoo; Choi, Yonghyun; Kim, Kyobum; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Hong, Jong W.; Choi, Jonghoon. 2018. "Oxygen-Carrying Micro/Nanobubbles: Composition, Synthesis Techniques and Potential Prospects in Photo-Triggered Theranostics" Molecules 23, no. 9: 2210.

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