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Special Issue "Multifunctional magnetic hybrid nanomaterials for biomedical applications: Paving the Old, Opening the way for the New"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 9702

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gianina Dodi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Medical Bioengineering and Advanced Centre for Research-Development in Experimental Medicine, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: nanomaterials; iron oxide nanoparticles; polymers; biomarkers; disease prevention; preclinical and clinical trials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Amin Shavandi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
BioMatter Unit, École Polytechnique de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 50-CP 165/61, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Interests: biomaterials; 3D bioprinting; biomatter; wound healing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vera Balan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biomedical Science Department, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
Interests: magnetic nanocomposites; drug delivery; theranostic; breast-cancer; biotin-functionalized nanoparticles; chitosan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, hybrid magnetic nanomaterials have gained tremendous interest in different applications fields, ranging from chemistry, biology, and physics to medicine. Hybrid materials, incorporating both organic and inorganic constituents, herein magnetic nanomaterials and complementary functional coatings, are emerging as a very potent and promising class of materials, due to the large surface‐area‐to‐volume ratio and sophisticated surface characteristic. The joint function leads to a perfect synergy of properties of desired material that circumvents the limitations of each single mode component. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that consist of magnetic elements, such as iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, gadolinium, or their oxides, such as magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), cobalt ferrite (Fe2CoO4) and chromium di-oxide (CrO2). Characterized by unique magnetic property, controlled size, high surface area, targeting, and biocompatibility, magnetic nanoparticles have become “materials for the future” in the nanomedical field. The functional matrices play an important role in hybrid materials design, and can have either chemical, predominantly constructed from synthetic molecules, monomers, polymer-based materials, or biological nature, such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, cells, bacteria, microorganisms.

Hybrid nanostructures of magnetic nanoparticles can be compositionally assembled in the form of: core-shells, liposomes, hydrogels, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoclusters, nanocomposites, nanoporous materials, hybrid polymer brushes, layer-by-layer assemblies, and other hybrid-based constructs. However, these unique nanoplatforms have their own shortcomings and cannot perfectly meet the needs of clinical specialists, since only some forms of these nanovechicles are now clinically used as magnetic targeting drugs delivery systems or for improving magnetic resonance contrast.

This Special Issue is devoted to magnetic hybrid nanomaterials selection, from design and synthesis, to in vitro and in vivo studies, and up to the clinical evaluation based on specific nanostructural features for real world applications. Furthermore, this issue discusses the challenges related to their toxicity, regulatory and translational aspects.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • multifunctional nanostructured magnetic hybrid materials
  • design routes
  • surface functionalization
  • natural and synthetic polymers
  • bioconjugation
  • nanostructural characterization
  • magnetic properties
  • preclinical studies
  • multimodal diagnosis
  • theranostics
  • clinical outcome

Dr. Gianina Dodi
Dr. Amin Shavandi
Dr. Vera Balan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid materials
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • polymer conjugation
  • nanomaterials
  • preclinical evaluation
  • translational aspects
  • biomedical applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Novel Method of Magnetic Nanoparticles Functionalized with Anti-Folate Receptor Antibody and Methotrexate for Antibody Mediated Targeted Drug Delivery
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010261 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Therapeutic effects of anticancer medicines can be improved by targeting the specific receptors on cancer cells. Folate receptor (FR) targeting with antibody (Ab) is an effective tool to deliver anticancer drugs to the cancer cell. In this research project, a novel formulation of [...] Read more.
Therapeutic effects of anticancer medicines can be improved by targeting the specific receptors on cancer cells. Folate receptor (FR) targeting with antibody (Ab) is an effective tool to deliver anticancer drugs to the cancer cell. In this research project, a novel formulation of targeting drug delivery was designed, and its anticancer effects were analyzed. Folic acid-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for the purification of folate receptors through a novel magnetic affinity purification method. Antibodies against the folate receptors and methotrexate (MTX) were developed and characterized with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Targeting nanomedicines (MNP-MTX-FR Ab) were synthesized by engineering the MNP with methotrexate and anti-folate receptor antibody (anti-FR Ab). The cytotoxicity of nanomedicines on HeLa cells was analyzed by calculating the % age cell viability. A fluorescent study was performed with HeLa cells and tumor tissue sections to analyze the binding efficacy and intracellular tracking of synthesized nanomedicines. MNP-MTX-FR Ab demonstrated good cytotoxicity along all the nanocomposites, which confirms that the antibody-coated medicine possesses the potential affinity to destroy cancer cells in the targeted drug delivery process. Immunohistochemical approaches and fluorescent study further confirmed their uptake by FRs on the tumor cells’ surface in antibody-mediated endocytosis. The current approach is a useful addition to targeted drug delivery for better management of cancer therapy along with immunotherapy in the future. Full article
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Article
Self-Assembly of Au-Fe3O4 Hybrid Nanoparticles Using a Sol–Gel Pechini Method
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 6943; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226943 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The Pechini method has been used as a synthetic route for obtaining self-assembling magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles in hybrid silica nanostructures. This manuscript evaluates the influence of shaking conditions, reaction time, and pH on the size and morphology of the nanostructures produced. The [...] Read more.
The Pechini method has been used as a synthetic route for obtaining self-assembling magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles in hybrid silica nanostructures. This manuscript evaluates the influence of shaking conditions, reaction time, and pH on the size and morphology of the nanostructures produced. The characterization of the nanomaterials was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the coating and size of the nanomaterials, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) transmission spectra to evaluate the presence of the different coatings, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves to determine the amount of coating. The results obtained show that the best conditions to obtain core–satellite nanostructures with homogeneous silica shells and controlled sizes (<200 nm) include the use of slightly alkaline media, the ultrasound activation of silica condensation, and reaction times of around 2 h. These findings represent an important framework to establish a new general approach for the click chemistry assembling of inorganic nanostructures. Full article
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Article
The Flow of Blood-Based Hybrid Nanofluids with Couple Stresses by the Convergent and Divergent Channel for the Applications of Drug Delivery
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216330 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
This research work aims to scrutinize the mathematical model for the hybrid nanofluid flow in a converging and diverging channel. Titanium dioxide and silver TiO2 and Ag are considered as solid nanoparticles while blood is considered a [...] Read more.
This research work aims to scrutinize the mathematical model for the hybrid nanofluid flow in a converging and diverging channel. Titanium dioxide and silver TiO2 and Ag are considered as solid nanoparticles while blood is considered a base solvent. The couple-stress fluid model is essentially use to describe the blood flow. Therefore, the couple-stress term was used in the recent study with the existence of a magnetic field and a Darcy–Forchheiner porous medium. The heat absorption/omission and radiation terms were also included in the energy equation for the sustainability of drug delivery. An endeavor was made to link the recent study with the applications of drug delivery. It has already been revealed by the available literature that the combination of TiO2 with any other metal can destroy cancer cells more effectively than TiO2 separately. Both the walls are stretchable/shrinkable, whereas flow is caused by a source or sink with α as a converging/diverging parameter. Governing equations were altered into the system of non-linear coupled equations by using the similarity variables. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) was applied to obtain the preferred solution. The influences of the modeled parameters have been calculated and displayed. The confrontation of wall shear stress and hybrid nanofluid flow increased as the couple stress parameter rose, which indicates an improvement in the stability of the base fluid (blood). The percentage (%) increase in the heat transfer rate with the variation of nanoparticle volume fraction was also calculated numerically and discussed theoretically. Full article
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Article
Paclitaxel-Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles Based on Biotinylated N-Palmitoyl Chitosan: Synthesis, Characterization and Preliminary In Vitro Studies
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113467 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
A considerable interest in cancer research is represented by the development of magnetic nanoparticles based on biofunctionalized polymers for controlled-release systems of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs targeted only to the tumor sites, without affecting normal cells. The objective of the paper is to present [...] Read more.
A considerable interest in cancer research is represented by the development of magnetic nanoparticles based on biofunctionalized polymers for controlled-release systems of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs targeted only to the tumor sites, without affecting normal cells. The objective of the paper is to present the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of the nanocomposites that include a magnetic core able to direct the systems to the target, a polymeric surface shell that provides stabilization and multi-functionality, a chemotherapeutic agent, Paclitaxel (PTX), and a biotin tumor recognition layer. To our best knowledge, there are no studies concerning development of magnetic nanoparticles obtained by partial oxidation, based on biotinylated N-palmitoyl chitosan loaded with PTX. The structure, external morphology, size distribution, colloidal and magnetic properties analyses confirmed the formation of well-defined crystalline magnetite conjugates, with broad distribution, relatively high saturation magnetization and irregular shape. Even if the ability of the nanoparticles to release the drug in 72 h was demonstrated, further complex in vitro and in vivo studies will be performed in order to validate the magnetic nanoparticles as PTX delivery system. Full article
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Article
Role of Magnetite Nanoparticles Size and Concentration on Hyperthermia under Various Field Frequencies and Strengths
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040796 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using the chemical coprecipitation method. Several nanoparticle samples were synthesized by varying the concentration of iron salt precursors in the solution for the synthesis. Two batches of nanoparticles with average sizes of 10.2 nm [...] Read more.
Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using the chemical coprecipitation method. Several nanoparticle samples were synthesized by varying the concentration of iron salt precursors in the solution for the synthesis. Two batches of nanoparticles with average sizes of 10.2 nm and 12.2 nm with nearly similar particle-size distributions were investigated. The average particle sizes were determined from the XRD patterns and TEM images. For each batch, several samples with different particle concentrations were prepared. Morphological analysis of the samples was performed using TEM. The phase and structure of the particles of each batch were studied using XRD, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Raman and XPS spectroscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loops were obtained using a Lakeshore vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. In the two batches, the particles were found to be of the same pure crystalline phase of magnetite. The effects of particle size, size distribution, and concentration on the magnetic properties and magneto thermic efficiency were investigated. Heating profiles, under an alternating magnetic field, were obtained for the two batches of nanoparticles with frequencies 765.85, 634.45, 491.10, 390.25, 349.20, 306.65, and 166.00 kHz and field amplitudes of 100, 200, 250, 300 and 350 G. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values for the particles of size 12.2 nm are higher than those for the particles of size 10.2 nm at all concentrations and field parameters. SAR decreases with the increase of particle concentration. SAR obtained for all the particle concentrations of the two batches increases almost linearly with the field frequency (at fixed field strength) and nonlinearly with the field amplitude (at fixed field frequency). SAR value obtained for magnetite nanoparticles with the highest magnetization is 145.84 W/g at 765.85 kHz and 350 G, whereas the SAR value of the particles with the least magnetization is 81.67 W/g at the same field and frequency. Full article
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Review

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Review
Imaging Constructs: The Rise of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113437 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
Over the last decade, an important challenge in nanomedicine imaging has been the work to design multifunctional agents that can be detected by single and/or multimodal techniques. Among the broad spectrum of nanoscale materials being investigated for imaging use, iron oxide nanoparticles have [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, an important challenge in nanomedicine imaging has been the work to design multifunctional agents that can be detected by single and/or multimodal techniques. Among the broad spectrum of nanoscale materials being investigated for imaging use, iron oxide nanoparticles have gained significant attention due to their intrinsic magnetic properties, low toxicity, large magnetic moments, superparamagnetic behaviour and large surface area—the latter being a particular advantage in its conjunction with specific moieties, dye molecules, and imaging probes. Tracers-based nanoparticles are promising candidates, since they combine synergistic advantages for non-invasive, highly sensitive, high-resolution, and quantitative imaging on different modalities. This study represents an overview of current advancements in magnetic materials with clinical potential that will hopefully provide an effective system for diagnosis in the near future. Further exploration is still needed to reveal their potential as promising candidates from simple functionalization of metal oxide nanomaterials up to medical imaging. Full article
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