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Special Issue "Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Silvia Panzavolta

Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Department of Chemistry "G. Ciamician", Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biopolymers; biomimetic materials; calcium phosphate bone cement; drug delivery systems; gelatin scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is related to the chemistry, characterization and application of gelatin. Gelatin, obtained by chemical-thermal degradation of collagen, is one of the most employed biopolymers, thanks to its biodegradability, excellent biocompatibility, plasticity, adhesiveness, abundance, and low cost. The main drawbacks of gelatin as a material are its poor mechanical performance and its high solubility in aqueous environments, which can be improved through crosslinking or by combining the biopolymer with an inorganic filler. Gelatin-based materials could be developed and applied in multidisciplinary fields, for example packaging, food, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetic industry, as well as for the production of materials addressed to biomedical field.

All researchers working in the field are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of Molecules, which focuses on gelatin new crosslinking methods, on the design and synthesis of gelatin-based biomaterials and scaffolds for osteochondral defect repair, on the performance of gelatin as tailored drug delivery systems, on the evaluation of novel gelatin-based materials for cosmetic and packaging applications, as well as on the characterization of chemical-physical properties with advanced analyses.

Dr. Silvia Panzavolta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gelatin crosslinking
  • Gelatin-based biomaterials
  • Gelatin as delivery system of bioactive molecules
  • Gelatin films and patches
  • Gelatin characterization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Environmentally Friendly Gelatin/β-Cyclodextrin Composite Fiber Adsorbents for the Efficient Removal of Dyes from Wastewater
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102473
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, environmentally friendly gelatin/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite fiber adsorbents prepared by electrospinning were used for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a universal materials tester were employed to
[...] Read more.
In this paper, environmentally friendly gelatin/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite fiber adsorbents prepared by electrospinning were used for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a universal materials tester were employed to characterize the internal structures, surface morphologies and mechanical strength of the composite fiber adsorbents. Additionally, the fiber was evaluated as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of the raw material ratio, pH, temperature, concentration and adsorption time were studied. The results show that the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber adsorbents possess excellent mechanical strength and high adsorption efficiency for MB. The adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics are well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity is 47.4 mg·g−1. Additionally, after nine successive desorption-adsorption cycles, the removal rate is still over 70%. Moreover, the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber adsorbents exhibit excellent adsorption capability for basic fuchsin, gentian violet, brilliant blue R and malachite green dyes. Therefore, owing to the characteristics of degradability, low cost and high-efficiency, the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Cell Adhesion, Cell Growth, Wound Healing, and Oxidative Protection by Gelatins Extracted from Extrusion-Pretreated Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Fish Scale
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102406
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Gelatin has been broadly utilized in the food, pharmaceutical, photographic, cosmetic and packaging industries, and there is also huge potential for novel applications of gelatin in the fields of biotechnology and biomedicine. In the present study, we extracted gelatin from fish processing waste,
[...] Read more.
Gelatin has been broadly utilized in the food, pharmaceutical, photographic, cosmetic and packaging industries, and there is also huge potential for novel applications of gelatin in the fields of biotechnology and biomedicine. In the present study, we extracted gelatin from fish processing waste, i.e., scale of tilapia, by a combined method of extrusion-pretreatment and hot water extraction. The extrusion-pretreatment process increases the extraction yield of gelatin. Three gelatins (FS2: preconditioning with double-distilled water (ddH2O) before extrusion; FS12: preconditioning with citric acid solution before extrusion; FS14: preconditioning with acetic acid solution before extrusion) were obtained and all of them enhanced cell adhesion, cell growth, and wound healing in HaCaT cells and protected HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced cellular damage. Among FS2, FS12, and FS14, FS12 exhibited the most pronounced enhancement of cell adhesion, cell growth, and wound healing in HaCaT cells, and thus it may have potential as an effective natural raw material in cell therapies for cutaneous wounds and for reducing H2O2-induced oxidative damage of cells. In additional experiments, it was found that phosphorylations of Akt and mTOR are involved in the signaling pathway activated by FS2, FS12, and FS14 in HaCaT cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle The Growth Proliferation, Apoptotic Prevention, and Differentiation Induction of the Gelatin Hydrolysates from Three Sources to Human Fetal Osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 Cells)
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061287
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Gelatins from the skin of bovine, porcine, and tilapia were hydrolyzed to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) by alcalase, neutrase, and papain, respectively. These hydrolysates at 0.02–0.1 g/L promoted the growth of human fetal osteoblasts by 101.4–135.7%, while higher DH or using papain
[...] Read more.
Gelatins from the skin of bovine, porcine, and tilapia were hydrolyzed to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) by alcalase, neutrase, and papain, respectively. These hydrolysates at 0.02–0.1 g/L promoted the growth of human fetal osteoblasts by 101.4–135.7%, while higher DH or using papain and tilapia gelatins resulted in higher proliferation. The hydrolysates from porcine and tilapia gelatins at 0.05 g/L prevented induced apoptosis (decreasing total apoptotic proportions from 28.4% or 35.2% to 10.3–17.5% or 16.0–23.6%), and had differentiation induction (increasing alkaline phosphatase activity by 126.9–246.7% in early differentiation stage, or enhancing osteocalcin production by 4.1–22.5% in later differentiation stage). These hydrolysates had a similar amino acid profile; however, tilapia gelatin hydrolysates by papain with DH 15.4% mostly displayed higher activity than others. Tilapia gelatin hydrolysate could up-regulate β-catenin, Wnt 3a, Wnt 10b, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression at mRNA levels by 1.11–3.60 folds, but down-regulate GSK 3β expression by 0.98 fold. Of note, β-catenin in total cellular and nuclear protein was up-regulated by 1.14–1.16 folds but unchanged in cytoplasmic protein, Wnt 10b, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression were up-regulated by 1.27–1.95 folds, whilst GSK 3β expression was down-regulated by 0.87 fold. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is suggested to mediate cell proliferation and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle On-Demand Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Gelatin Foams
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051121
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3) have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell) and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm), presence of an
[...] Read more.
Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3) have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell) and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm), presence of an external skin, and densities similar to aerogels. Results indicate that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets) that are present in dehydrated gelatin films but not present in the foams after microwave radiation (700 Watts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Gelatin as a Photosensitive Material
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082064
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used
[...] Read more.
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used for detection of light, such as photomultipliers, CCDs, crystals, two dimensional (2D) materials and more. Among the 2D materials, the most popular for several centuries has been gelatin based photographic emulsion, which records spatial distributions of light. More recently (1970), films made of Gelatin with Dichromate (DCG) and dyes have been used. We describe some characteristics and applications of these two photosensitive materials. We also describe examples where gelatin is used as a Relative Humidity (RH) sensor and in the fabrication of optical elements based on gelatin. This article is intended for researchers outside the optics community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the paper: Article
Title: Methacrylic modified gelatin hydrogels as a new suitable material for astrocyte 3D culture scaffold
Authors: Federico Cantoni, Ana Maria Porras, Hannah Pohlit, Ayan Samanta, Jöns Hilborn and Maria Tenje
Affiliations: Dep. Engineering Sciences and Polymer Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Abstract: The implementation of polymeric hydrogels as biocompatible scaffolds for cell culture has resulted in great advances in tissue engineering in the last decades. Among the wide variety of hydrogel precursor polymers, methacrylic modified gelatin (GelMA) has been one of the most employed and studied for cell culture due to its tuneable physical properties, good biocompatibility and low cost. Among the significant amount of the publications reporting on GelMA as a cell culture scaffold, no study has yet reported on the culture of astrocytes on this polymer. For this reason, in view of the growing interest in the development of new in-vitro nervous system models, this work reports on the feasibility of the astrocyte 3D culture in GelMA. The research investigates the influence of the hydrogel mechanical properties, which can be tuned by varying the GelMA polymer concentration, over the cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation on the scaffold surface. Further, these results are combined with the live-dead assessment to identify hydrogel precursor concentration, which shows the optimal conditions for the cell growth. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the capability of GelMA to provide a valid option for the astrocyte culture and future biological investigations on this type of cells.
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