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Special Issue "Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Silvia Panzavolta
Website
Guest Editor
Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Department of Chemistry "G. Ciamician", Bologna, Italy
Interests: biopolymers; biomimetic materials; calcium phosphate bone cement; drug delivery systems; gelatin scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is related to the chemistry, characterization and application of gelatin. Gelatin, obtained by chemical-thermal degradation of collagen, is one of the most employed biopolymers, thanks to its biodegradability, excellent biocompatibility, plasticity, adhesiveness, abundance, and low cost. The main drawbacks of gelatin as a material are its poor mechanical performance and its high solubility in aqueous environments, which can be improved through crosslinking or by combining the biopolymer with an inorganic filler. Gelatin-based materials could be developed and applied in multidisciplinary fields, for example packaging, food, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetic industry, as well as for the production of materials addressed to biomedical field.

All researchers working in the field are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of Molecules, which focuses on gelatin new crosslinking methods, on the design and synthesis of gelatin-based biomaterials and scaffolds for osteochondral defect repair, on the performance of gelatin as tailored drug delivery systems, on the evaluation of novel gelatin-based materials for cosmetic and packaging applications, as well as on the characterization of chemical-physical properties with advanced analyses.

Dr. Silvia Panzavolta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gelatin crosslinking
  • Gelatin-based biomaterials
  • Gelatin as delivery system of bioactive molecules
  • Gelatin films and patches
  • Gelatin characterization

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Virtual Gelatin Model Using Molecular Modeling Computational Tools
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3365; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183365 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To successfully design and optimize the application of hydrogel matrices one has to effectively combine computational design tools with experimental methods. In this context, one of the most promising techniques is molecular modeling, which requires however accurate molecular models representing the investigated material. [...] Read more.
To successfully design and optimize the application of hydrogel matrices one has to effectively combine computational design tools with experimental methods. In this context, one of the most promising techniques is molecular modeling, which requires however accurate molecular models representing the investigated material. Although this method has been successfully used over the years for predicting the properties of polymers, its application to biopolymers, including gelatin, is limited. In this paper we provide a method for creating an atomistic representation of gelatin based on the modified FASTA codes of natural collagen. We show that the model created in this manner reproduces known experimental values of gelatin properties like density, glass-rubber transition temperature, WAXS profile and isobaric thermal expansion coefficient. We also present that molecular dynamics using the INTERFACE force field provides enough accuracy to track changes of density, fractional free volume and Hansen solubility coefficient over a narrow temperature regime (273–318 K) with 1 K accuracy. Thus we depict that using molecular dynamics one can predict properties of gelatin biopolymer as an efficient matrix for immobilization of various bioactive compounds, including enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Softgels Cross-Linked with Cactus Mucilage Extracted from Cladodes of Opuntia Ficus-Indica
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142531 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A new crosslinking formulation using gelatin (G) and cactus mucilage (CM) biopolymers was developed, physicochemically characterized and proposed as an alternative wall material to traditional gelatin capsules (softgels). The effect of G concentration at different G/CM ratios (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3) was analyzed. [...] Read more.
A new crosslinking formulation using gelatin (G) and cactus mucilage (CM) biopolymers was developed, physicochemically characterized and proposed as an alternative wall material to traditional gelatin capsules (softgels). The effect of G concentration at different G/CM ratios (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3) was analyzed. Transparency, moisture content (MC), solubility in water (SW), morphology (scanning electron microscopy, SEM), vibrational characterization (Fourier transform infrared, FTIR), color parameters (CIELab) and thermal (differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis, DSC/TGA) properties of the prepared composite (CMC) capsules were estimated and compared with control (CC) capsules containing only G and glycerol. In addition, the dietary fiber (DF) content was also evaluated. Our results showed that the transparency of composite samples decreased gradually with the presence of CM, the G/CM ratio of 3:1 being suitable to form the softgels. The addition of CM decreased the MC, the SW and the lightness of the capsules. Furthermore, the presence of polysaccharide had significant effects on the morphology and thermal behavior of CMC in contrast to CC. FTIR spectra confirmed the CMC formation by crosslinking between CM and G biopolymers. The addition of CM to the softgels formulation influenced the DF content. Our findings support the feasibility of developing softgels using a formulation of CM and G as wall material with nutritional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Induced Aggregation of Epoxy Polysiloxane Grafted Gelatin by Organic Solvent and Green Application
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122264 - 18 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we studied the aggregation of amphiphilic polymer epoxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-E) grafted gelatin (PGG) in water induced by methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and 1,4-dioxane. The aggregation pattern of the polymer was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron [...] Read more.
In this paper, we studied the aggregation of amphiphilic polymer epoxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-E) grafted gelatin (PGG) in water induced by methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and 1,4-dioxane. The aggregation pattern of the polymer was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the aggregate morphology showed clear dependence on the solvent polarity. The PGG aggregates had regular spherical morphology in polar solvents, including water, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. The coating performance was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and friction experiment, and PGG and acetone coating exhibited excellent coating performance on the surface of pigskin. Gel was formed in acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF) with the slow evaporation of solvent, and this property can possibly be applied to industrial sewage treatment. White precipitate and soft film were formed in non-polar 1,4-dioxane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chitosan and Fish Gelatin Coatings on Preventing the Deterioration and Preserving the Quality of Fresh-Cut Apples
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24102008 - 25 May 2019
Abstract
The effect of fish gelatin and chitosan coatings on the physicochemical characteristics of fresh-cut apples (Malus pumila Mill.), stored at 5 °C and 22 °C, was investigated. Chitosan provided an effective control for microbial growth, maintained firmness during 4 days of storage [...] Read more.
The effect of fish gelatin and chitosan coatings on the physicochemical characteristics of fresh-cut apples (Malus pumila Mill.), stored at 5 °C and 22 °C, was investigated. Chitosan provided an effective control for microbial growth, maintained firmness during 4 days of storage at room temperature (22 °C), and 12 days at refrigerator (5 °C). The results indicated that chitosan coating caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the L* value of cube color of cut apples. Fish gelatin–chitosan coatings mitigated the L* value and decrease in hue angle of the cut apple samples, at cold storage. Experimental results showed that fish gelatin–chitosan and chitosan coatings, can be used to mitigate the formation of vitamin C, due to respiration, microbial growth, and weight loss at cold storage. Fish gelatin–chitosan coating might be a better combination for maintaining appearance and extending shelf-life of cut apples, compared to only chitosan coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Cylindrical Layered Bone Scaffolds with Anisotropic Mechanical Properties as Potential Drug Delivery Systems
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101931 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
3D cylindrical layered scaffolds with anisotropic mechanical properties were prepared according to a new and simple method, which involves gelatin foaming, deposition of foamed strips, in situ crosslinking, strip rolling and lyophilization. Different genipin concentrations were tested in order to obtain strips with [...] Read more.
3D cylindrical layered scaffolds with anisotropic mechanical properties were prepared according to a new and simple method, which involves gelatin foaming, deposition of foamed strips, in situ crosslinking, strip rolling and lyophilization. Different genipin concentrations were tested in order to obtain strips with different crosslinking degrees and a tunable stability in biological environment. Before lyophilization, the strips were curled in a concentric structure to generate anisotropic spiral-cylindrical scaffolds. The scaffolds displayed significantly higher values of stress at break and of the Young modulus in compression along the longitudinal than the transverse direction. Further improvement of the mechanical properties was achieved by adding strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) to the scaffold composition and by increasing genipin concentration. Moreover, composition modulated also water uptake ability and degradation behavior. The scaffolds showed a sustained strontium release, suggesting possible applications for the local treatment of abnormally high bone resorption. This study demonstrates that assembly of layers of different composition can be used as a tool to obtain scaffolds with modulated properties, which can be loaded with drugs or biologically active molecules providing properties tailored upon the needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Characteristics of Ultraviolet-Irradiated Tilapia Fish Skin Gelatin
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020254 - 11 Jan 2019
Abstract
Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the gel strength, color, thermal properties, protein molecular masses, and functional groups of commercially available fish gelatin samples. Commercially available tilapia skin gelatin powder was used as the raw material to [...] Read more.
Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the gel strength, color, thermal properties, protein molecular masses, and functional groups of commercially available fish gelatin samples. Commercially available tilapia skin gelatin powder was used as the raw material to investigate the functional properties of fish skin gelatin powder treated with UV irradiation for different durations (0–6 h). The functional properties of fish gelatin and the optimum irradiation treatment conditions were determined through gel strength testing, color characterization, differential scanning calorimetry, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. UV irradiation treatment increased gel strength and thermal stability, and significantly degraded the macromolecules. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy data indicated that UV irradiation treatment did not significantly change the molecular structure of fish gelatin powder, but these methods could discriminate the molecular structure of gelatin from various sources. Irradiation for 2 h yielded the highest gel strength and melting peak temperature, and the lowest chromatic aberration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmentally Friendly Gelatin/β-Cyclodextrin Composite Fiber Adsorbents for the Efficient Removal of Dyes from Wastewater
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102473 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
In this paper, environmentally friendly gelatin/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite fiber adsorbents prepared by electrospinning were used for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a universal materials tester were employed to [...] Read more.
In this paper, environmentally friendly gelatin/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite fiber adsorbents prepared by electrospinning were used for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a universal materials tester were employed to characterize the internal structures, surface morphologies and mechanical strength of the composite fiber adsorbents. Additionally, the fiber was evaluated as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of the raw material ratio, pH, temperature, concentration and adsorption time were studied. The results show that the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber adsorbents possess excellent mechanical strength and high adsorption efficiency for MB. The adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics are well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity is 47.4 mg·g−1. Additionally, after nine successive desorption-adsorption cycles, the removal rate is still over 70%. Moreover, the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber adsorbents exhibit excellent adsorption capability for basic fuchsin, gentian violet, brilliant blue R and malachite green dyes. Therefore, owing to the characteristics of degradability, low cost and high-efficiency, the gelatin/β-CD composite fiber can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Cell Adhesion, Cell Growth, Wound Healing, and Oxidative Protection by Gelatins Extracted from Extrusion-Pretreated Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Fish Scale
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102406 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Gelatin has been broadly utilized in the food, pharmaceutical, photographic, cosmetic and packaging industries, and there is also huge potential for novel applications of gelatin in the fields of biotechnology and biomedicine. In the present study, we extracted gelatin from fish processing waste, [...] Read more.
Gelatin has been broadly utilized in the food, pharmaceutical, photographic, cosmetic and packaging industries, and there is also huge potential for novel applications of gelatin in the fields of biotechnology and biomedicine. In the present study, we extracted gelatin from fish processing waste, i.e., scale of tilapia, by a combined method of extrusion-pretreatment and hot water extraction. The extrusion-pretreatment process increases the extraction yield of gelatin. Three gelatins (FS2: preconditioning with double-distilled water (ddH2O) before extrusion; FS12: preconditioning with citric acid solution before extrusion; FS14: preconditioning with acetic acid solution before extrusion) were obtained and all of them enhanced cell adhesion, cell growth, and wound healing in HaCaT cells and protected HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced cellular damage. Among FS2, FS12, and FS14, FS12 exhibited the most pronounced enhancement of cell adhesion, cell growth, and wound healing in HaCaT cells, and thus it may have potential as an effective natural raw material in cell therapies for cutaneous wounds and for reducing H2O2-induced oxidative damage of cells. In additional experiments, it was found that phosphorylations of Akt and mTOR are involved in the signaling pathway activated by FS2, FS12, and FS14 in HaCaT cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
The Growth Proliferation, Apoptotic Prevention, and Differentiation Induction of the Gelatin Hydrolysates from Three Sources to Human Fetal Osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 Cells)
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061287 - 28 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gelatins from the skin of bovine, porcine, and tilapia were hydrolyzed to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) by alcalase, neutrase, and papain, respectively. These hydrolysates at 0.02–0.1 g/L promoted the growth of human fetal osteoblasts by 101.4–135.7%, while higher DH or using papain [...] Read more.
Gelatins from the skin of bovine, porcine, and tilapia were hydrolyzed to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) by alcalase, neutrase, and papain, respectively. These hydrolysates at 0.02–0.1 g/L promoted the growth of human fetal osteoblasts by 101.4–135.7%, while higher DH or using papain and tilapia gelatins resulted in higher proliferation. The hydrolysates from porcine and tilapia gelatins at 0.05 g/L prevented induced apoptosis (decreasing total apoptotic proportions from 28.4% or 35.2% to 10.3–17.5% or 16.0–23.6%), and had differentiation induction (increasing alkaline phosphatase activity by 126.9–246.7% in early differentiation stage, or enhancing osteocalcin production by 4.1–22.5% in later differentiation stage). These hydrolysates had a similar amino acid profile; however, tilapia gelatin hydrolysates by papain with DH 15.4% mostly displayed higher activity than others. Tilapia gelatin hydrolysate could up-regulate β-catenin, Wnt 3a, Wnt 10b, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression at mRNA levels by 1.11–3.60 folds, but down-regulate GSK 3β expression by 0.98 fold. Of note, β-catenin in total cellular and nuclear protein was up-regulated by 1.14–1.16 folds but unchanged in cytoplasmic protein, Wnt 10b, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression were up-regulated by 1.27–1.95 folds, whilst GSK 3β expression was down-regulated by 0.87 fold. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is suggested to mediate cell proliferation and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle
On-Demand Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Gelatin Foams
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051121 - 09 May 2018
Abstract
Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3) have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell) and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm), presence of an [...] Read more.
Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3) have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell) and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm), presence of an external skin, and densities similar to aerogels. Results indicate that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets) that are present in dehydrated gelatin films but not present in the foams after microwave radiation (700 Watts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gelatin as a Photosensitive Material
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082064 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used [...] Read more.
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used for detection of light, such as photomultipliers, CCDs, crystals, two dimensional (2D) materials and more. Among the 2D materials, the most popular for several centuries has been gelatin based photographic emulsion, which records spatial distributions of light. More recently (1970), films made of Gelatin with Dichromate (DCG) and dyes have been used. We describe some characteristics and applications of these two photosensitive materials. We also describe examples where gelatin is used as a Relative Humidity (RH) sensor and in the fabrication of optical elements based on gelatin. This article is intended for researchers outside the optics community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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