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Special Issue "Isolation of Marine Polysaccharides for Industrial and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christine Delbarre-Ladrat
Website
Guest Editor
Ifremer, Laboratoire Ecosystèmes Microbiens et Molécules Marines pour les Biotechnologies EM3B, 44311 Nantes, France
Interests: physiology; phylogenetics and genomics of marine bacteria; enzymes to modify polysaccharides; production and molecular biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides; antimicrobial compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Website
Guest Editor
Ifremer, Laboratoire Ecosystèmes Microbiens et Molécules Marines pour les Biotechnologies EM3B, 44311 Nantes, France
Interests: isolation of marine polysaccharides from a diverse marine biomass (algae, microalgae, bacteria, etc), design of “Glycosaminoglycan-mimetics”, development of biotechnological and pharmaceutical products
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine polysaccharides offer a source of safe, biocompatible, biodegradable, and valuable renewable products with specific biological functions emphasized by a significant structural diversity. Among them, anionic heteropolysaccharides emerging from the marine biodiversity are highly attractive for the isolation of innovative molecules for industrial and biological applications. Natural polysaccharides can be isolated from marine macro-resources (e.g., crustaceans, sea cucumbers, seaweeds, etc.) as well as marine microorganisms (e.g., micro-algae, bacteria, fungi, etc.). From this huge diversity, high-added-value bioactive molecules can be designed thanks to structural modifications undertaken either by chemical or by enzymatic processes to improve their efficiency. This Special Issue of Molecules aims to identify or review the latest emerging cutting-edge research on polysaccharides and/or their derivatives from the marine biodiversity. Among others, manuscripts dealing with structural determination, production optimization, biosynthesis mechanisms, chemical and enzymatic modifications, and potential innovative applications driven by structural features are welcome.

Dr. Christine Delbarre-Ladrat
Dr. Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine biodiversity
  • polysaccharide
  • exopolysaccharide
  • anionic polysaccharide
  • sulfated polysaccharide
  • marine-derived polysaccharide
  • oligosaccharide
  • structure
  • production
  • biosynthesis
  • modification
  • structure-function relationship
  • depolymerization
  • sulfation
  • CAZyme
  • glycoside hydrolase
  • polysaccharide lyase
  • sulfotransferase
  • sulfatase
  • biotechnology
  • heparin-like
  • heparinoid
  • glycosaminoglycan-like molecule
  • glycosaminoglycan-mimetic

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Use of Alginate Extracted from Moroccan Brown Algae to Stimulate Natural Defense in Date Palm Roots
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030720 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
Our study aimed to search for seaweed polysaccharides able to stimulate date palm defense mechanisms. Extraction, purification, characterization, and elicitor activity of sodium alginate (FSSA and BBSA) from Moroccan brown seaweeds Fucus spiralis and Bifurcaria bifurcata were investigated. FSSA and BBSA were characterized [...] Read more.
Our study aimed to search for seaweed polysaccharides able to stimulate date palm defense mechanisms. Extraction, purification, characterization, and elicitor activity of sodium alginate (FSSA and BBSA) from Moroccan brown seaweeds Fucus spiralis and Bifurcaria bifurcata were investigated. FSSA and BBSA were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of FSSA was M/G = 0.92 indicating that FSSA contained 48% and 52% of mannuronic and guluronic acids respectively, and the M/G ratio of BBSA was 0.47 indicating that BBSA contained 32% and 68% of mannuronic and guluronic acids respectively. Elicitor activity of FSSA and BBSA was carried out by developing an innovative study model on the date palm. The elicitor capacities were evaluated by investigating phenolic metabolism including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and total polyphenol content in seedling roots of date palm maintained in alginates solution (FSSA and BBSA) at different concentrations. The results obtained show that the PAL activity and the phenolic compound content were significantly stimulated with 1 mg·mL−1 of FSSA and BBSA; after 1 day of treatment with FSSA, and after 12 h of treatment with BBSA. These results show clearly those alginates extracted from Moroccan brown algae induced in date palm roots the stimulation of natural defense mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Characterization of New Oligosaccharides Obtained by An Enzymatic Cleavage of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Deep-Sea Bacterium Alteromonas infernus Using its Cell Extract
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193441 - 22 Sep 2019
Abstract
Bacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents constitute an attractive source of bioactive molecules. In particular, exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by these bacteria become a renewable source of both biocompatible and biodegradable molecules. The low molecular weight (LMW) derivatives of the GY785 EPS produced by the [...] Read more.
Bacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents constitute an attractive source of bioactive molecules. In particular, exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by these bacteria become a renewable source of both biocompatible and biodegradable molecules. The low molecular weight (LMW) derivatives of the GY785 EPS produced by the deep-sea hydrothermal vent strain Alteromonas infernus have previously displayed some biological properties, similar to those of glycosaminoglycans (GAG), explored in cancer and tissue engineering. These GAG-mimetic derivatives are obtained through a free radical depolymerization process, which could, however, affect their structural integrity. In a previous study, we have shown that A. infernus produces depolymerizing enzymes active on its own EPS. In the present study, an enzymatic reaction was optimized to generate LMW derivatives of the GY785 EPS, which could advantageously replace the present bioactive derivatives obtained by a chemical process. Analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharide fractions released after enzymatic treatment revealed that mainly a lyase activity was responsible for the polysaccharide depolymerization. The repeating unit of the GY785 EPS produced by enzyme cleavage was then fully characterized. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Bacteria as a Source of Glycosaminoglycan-Mimetic Exopolysaccharides
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091703 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bacteria have developed a unique strategy to survive in extreme environmental conditions through the synthesis of an extracellular polymeric matrix conferring upon the cells a protective microenvironment. The main structural component of this complex network constitutes high-molecular weight hydrophilic macromolecules, namely exopolysaccharides (EPS). [...] Read more.
Bacteria have developed a unique strategy to survive in extreme environmental conditions through the synthesis of an extracellular polymeric matrix conferring upon the cells a protective microenvironment. The main structural component of this complex network constitutes high-molecular weight hydrophilic macromolecules, namely exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS composition with the presence of particular chemical features may closely be related to the specific conditions in which bacteria evolve. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria have already been shown to produce EPS rich in hexosamines and uronic acids, frequently bearing some sulfate groups. Such a particular composition ensures interesting functional properties, including biological activities mimicking those known for glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of the present study was to go further into the exploration of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent IFREMER (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea) collection of bacteria to discover new strains able to excrete EPS endowed with GAG-like structural features. After the screening of our whole collection containing 692 strains, 38 bacteria have been selected for EPS production at the laboratory scale. EPS-producing strains were identified according to 16S rDNA phylogeny. Chemical characterization of the obtained EPS highlighted their high chemical diversity with the presence of atypical compositional patterns. These EPS constitute potential bioactives for a number of biomedical applications, including regenerative medicines and cancer treatment. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Extraction and Modification of Macroalgal Polysaccharides for Current and Next-Generation Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040930 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Marine macroalgal (seaweed) polysaccharides are highly promising for next-generation applications in several industries. However, despite the reported comprehensive potential of these polysaccharides, commercial products are scarce on the market. Seaweed cultivations are increasing in number and production quantity, owing to an elevated global [...] Read more.
Marine macroalgal (seaweed) polysaccharides are highly promising for next-generation applications in several industries. However, despite the reported comprehensive potential of these polysaccharides, commercial products are scarce on the market. Seaweed cultivations are increasing in number and production quantity, owing to an elevated global trend of utilization interest in seaweed. The extraction of polysaccharides from seaweed generally generates low yields, but novel methods are being developed to facilitate and improve the extraction processes. Current areas of applications for seaweed polysaccharides mainly take advantage of the physicochemical properties of certain polysaccharides, such as gelling, thickening and emulsifying. However, many of the numerous bioactivities reported are still only at research level and lack clinical evidence for commercialization. It has been suggested the construction of smaller units may generate better defined molecules that are more suitable for biomedical applications. Enzymatic modification is a promising tool for the generation of more defined, targeted biomolecules. This review covers; structural differences between the most predominant marine algal polysaccharides, extraction processes, modification alternatives, as well as a summary of current and potential next-generation application areas. Full article
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