Special Issue "Kola Alkaline Province: Ores, Rocks and Minerals—In Memory of Dr. Gregory Yu. Ivanyuk"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Krivovichev
E-Mail Website
Chief Guest Editor
1. Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fersmana str. 14, 184209 Apatity, Russia
2. Department of Crystallography, Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, University Emb. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: mineralogy; crystallography; structural complexity; uranium
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gregory Yu. Ivanyuk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kola Science Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russian Federation
Interests: alkaline complexes, petrology; mineralogy; new minerals; mineral-like materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Kola Alkaline Province contains the world’s largest peralkaline and alkaline-ultrabasic massifs (Khibiny, Lovozero, Kovdor, Tury Mys, etc.), with giant deposits of strategic and critical metals, including Fe, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Al, Na, K, Sc, REE, and P. Aspects of their genesis include plumes, magmatic reservoirs, magmatic and post-magmatic differentiation, geochemistry of incompatible elements, subsolidus events, plication and fault tectonics, accumulation and emission of hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases, etс. In addition, the Kola Alkaline Province is the world’s largest source of new mineral species (above 300) and natural prototypes of important functional materials (ETS-4, AM-4, IE-911, SIV, etc.), which makes it a source of important information on the crystal chemistry and conditions of synthesis of new mineral-like compounds.

This Special Issue will cover a wide range of topics related to the problems of geology, tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and crystal chemistry of the Kola alkaline complexes, as well as technological problems of deep ore processing.

This Special Issue is dedicated to Dr. Gregory Yu. Ivanyuk on the occasion of his unexpected passing.

Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Krivovichev
Dr. Gregory Yu. Ivanyuk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Kola Alkaline Province
  • Peralkaline massifs
  • Phoscorite-carbonatite complexes
  • Petrology
  • Geochemistry
  • Mineralogy
  • Crystal chemistry
  • Giant mineral deposits

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Petrogenesis of the Eudialyte Complex of the Lovozero Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100581 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
The Lovozero Alkaline Massif intruded through the Archaean granite-gneiss and Devonian volcaniclastic rocks about 360 million years ago, and formed a large (20 × 30 km) laccolith-type body, rhythmically layered in its lower part (the Layered Complex) and indistinctly layered and enriched in [...] Read more.
The Lovozero Alkaline Massif intruded through the Archaean granite-gneiss and Devonian volcaniclastic rocks about 360 million years ago, and formed a large (20 × 30 km) laccolith-type body, rhythmically layered in its lower part (the Layered Complex) and indistinctly layered and enriched in eudialyte-group minerals in its upper part (the Eudialyte Complex). The Eudialyte Complex is composed of two groups of rocks. Among the hypersolvus meso-melanocratic alkaline rocks (mainly malignite, as well as shonkinite, melteigite, and ijolite enriched with the eudialyte-group minerals, EGM), there are lenses of subsolvus leucocratic rocks (foyaite, fine-grained nepheline syenite, urtite with phosphorus mineralization, and primary lovozerite-group minerals). Leucocratic rocks were formed in the process of the fractional crystallization of melanocratic melt enriched in Fe, high field strength elements (HFSE), and halogens. The fractionation of the melanocratic melt proceeded in the direction of an enrichment in nepheline and a decrease in the aegirine content. A similar fractionation path occurs in the Na2O-Al2O3-Fe2O3-SiO2 system, where the melt of the “ijolite” type (approximately 50% of aegirine) evolves towards “phonolitic eutectic” (approximately 10% of aegirine). The temperature of the crystallization of subsolvus leucocratic rocks was about 550 °C. Hypersolvus meso-melanocratic rocks were formed at temperatures of 700–350 °C, with a gradual transition from an almost anhydrous HFSE-Fe-Cl/F-rich alkaline melt to a Na(Cl, F)-rich water solution. Devonian volcaniclastic rocks underwent metasomatic treatment of varying intensity and survived in the Eudialyte Complex, some remaining unchanged and some turning into nepheline syenites. In these rocks, there are signs of a gradual increase in the intensity of alkaline metasomatism, including a wide variety of zirconium phases. The relatively high fugacity of fluorine favored an early formation of zircon in apo-basalt metasomatites. The ensuing crystallization of aegirine in the metasomatites led to an increase in alkali content relative to silicon and parakeldyshite formation. After that, EGM was formed, under the influence of Ca-rich solutions produced by basalt fenitization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrochloric Acidic Processing of Titanite Ore to Produce a Synthetic Analogue of Korobitsynite
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050315 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
The modal composition of (apatite)-nepheline-titanite ore and its geological setting within apatite deposits of the Khibiny Massif allow selective mining of titanite ore and its hydrochloric acidic processing. The reaction of titanite with concentrated hydrochloric acid produces hydrated titanosilicate precipitate (TSP) which, in [...] Read more.
The modal composition of (apatite)-nepheline-titanite ore and its geological setting within apatite deposits of the Khibiny Massif allow selective mining of titanite ore and its hydrochloric acidic processing. The reaction of titanite with concentrated hydrochloric acid produces hydrated titanosilicate precipitate (TSP) which, in turn, can be a precursor in titanosilicate synthesis. It is particularly noteworthy that a synthetic analogue of korobitsynite, Na5(Ti3Nb)[Si4O12]2O2(OH)2·7H2O, was synthesized by means of TSP alteration by alkaline hydrothermal solution at 200 °C within three days. The titanosilicate obtained this way has comparatively weak cation-exchange properties regarding Cs+ and Sr2+ cations and considerable photocatalytic activity occurring under visible light, which allows the use of a synthetic korobitsynite analogue (SKR) for production of self-cleaning, sterilizing, and anti-fouling building materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chirvinskyite, (Na,Ca)13(Fe,Mn,□)2(Ti,Nb)2(Zr,Ti)3-(Si2O7)4(OH,O,F)12, a New Mineral with a Modular Wallpaper Structure, from the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)
Minerals 2019, 9(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9040219 - 06 Apr 2019
Abstract
Chirvinskyite, (Na,Ca)13(Fe,Mn,□)2(Ti,Nb)2(Zr,Ti)3(Si2O7)4(OH,O,F)12, is a new wöhlerite–related zirconotitano–sorosilicate. It is triclinic, P 1 ¯ , a = 7.0477(5), b = 9.8725(5), c = 12.2204(9) Å, α = 77.995(5), [...] Read more.
Chirvinskyite, (Na,Ca)13(Fe,Mn,□)2(Ti,Nb)2(Zr,Ti)3(Si2O7)4(OH,O,F)12, is a new wöhlerite–related zirconotitano–sorosilicate. It is triclinic, P 1 ¯ , a = 7.0477(5), b = 9.8725(5), c = 12.2204(9) Å, α = 77.995(5), β = 82.057(6), γ = 89.988(5)°, V = 823.35(9) Å3, Z = 1. The mineral was found in albitized alkaline pegmatites in a foyaite of the Mt. Takhtarvumchorr (Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, N 67°40′, E 33°33′). Chirvinskyite forms sheaf–like and radiated aggregates (up to 6 mm in diameter) of split fibrous crystals hosted by saccharoidal fluorapatite and albite. The mineral is pale cream in color, with a silky luster and a white streak. The cleavage is not recognized. Mohs hardness is 5. Chirvinskyite is biaxial (–), α 1.670(2), β 1.690(2), γ 1.705(2) (589 nm), 2Vcalc = 80.9°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.41 and 3.07(2) g·cm−3, respectively. The empirical formula based on Si = 8 apfu is (Na9.81Ca3.28K0.01)∑13.10(Fe0.72Mn0.690.54Mg0.05)∑2.00 (Ti1.81Nb0.19)∑2.00(Zr2.27Ti0.63)∑2.90(Si2O7)4{(OH)5.94O3.09F2.97}∑12.00. Chirvinskyite belongs to a new structure type of minerals and inorganic compounds and is related to the wöhlerite-group minerals. Its modular “wallpaper” structure consists of disilicate groups Si2O7 and three types of “octahedral walls”. The mineral is named in honor of Petr Nikolaevich Chirvinsky (1880–1955), Russian geologist and petrographer, head of the Petrography Department of the Perm’ State University (1943–1953), for his contributions to mineralogy and petrology, including studies of the Khibiny alkaline massif. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Occurrence Forms, Composition, Distribution, Origin and Potential Hazard of Natural Hydrogen–Hydrocarbon Gases in Ore Deposits of the Khibiny and Lovozero Massifs: A Review
Minerals 2019, 9(9), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9090535 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
The Khibiny and Lovozero massifs—the world’s largest alkaline massifs—contain deposits with unique reserves of phosphorus and rare metals, respectively. The reduced gas content in the rocks and, especially, the ore deposits of these massifs is unusually high for igneous complexes, thus representing both [...] Read more.
The Khibiny and Lovozero massifs—the world’s largest alkaline massifs—contain deposits with unique reserves of phosphorus and rare metals, respectively. The reduced gas content in the rocks and, especially, the ore deposits of these massifs is unusually high for igneous complexes, thus representing both geochemical and practical interests. There are three morphological types (or occurrence forms) of the gas phase in these deposits: occluded (predominantly in vacuoles of micro-inclusions in minerals), diffusely dispersed, and free. All three morphological types have the same qualitative chemical gas composition. Methane is the main component, and molecular hydrogen (which sometimes dominates) and ethane are the subordinate constituents. Heavier methane homologs (up to and including pentanes), alkenes, helium, and rarely carbon oxide and dioxide are present in minor or trace amounts. All three morphological types of gases are irregularly distributed in space to various degrees. Free gases also show a release intensity that varies in time. The majority of researchers recognize that the origin of these gases is abiogenic and mostly related to the formation of the massifs and deposits. However, the relative time and mechanism of their generation are still debated. Emissions of combustible and explosive hydrogen–hydrocarbon gases pose hazards during the underground mining of ore deposits. Therefore, the distinctive features of gas-bearing capacity are an essential part of the mining and geological characterization of such deposits because they provide a basis for establishing and implementing special measures of the gas regime during mining operations. Full article
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