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Open AccessReview

Occurrence Forms, Composition, Distribution, Origin and Potential Hazard of Natural Hydrogen–Hydrocarbon Gases in Ore Deposits of the Khibiny and Lovozero Massifs: A Review

Geological Institute, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 Fersman Str., 184209 Apatity, Russia
Minerals 2019, 9(9), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9090535
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 1 September 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
The Khibiny and Lovozero massifs—the world’s largest alkaline massifs—contain deposits with unique reserves of phosphorus and rare metals, respectively. The reduced gas content in the rocks and, especially, the ore deposits of these massifs is unusually high for igneous complexes, thus representing both geochemical and practical interests. There are three morphological types (or occurrence forms) of the gas phase in these deposits: occluded (predominantly in vacuoles of micro-inclusions in minerals), diffusely dispersed, and free. All three morphological types have the same qualitative chemical gas composition. Methane is the main component, and molecular hydrogen (which sometimes dominates) and ethane are the subordinate constituents. Heavier methane homologs (up to and including pentanes), alkenes, helium, and rarely carbon oxide and dioxide are present in minor or trace amounts. All three morphological types of gases are irregularly distributed in space to various degrees. Free gases also show a release intensity that varies in time. The majority of researchers recognize that the origin of these gases is abiogenic and mostly related to the formation of the massifs and deposits. However, the relative time and mechanism of their generation are still debated. Emissions of combustible and explosive hydrogen–hydrocarbon gases pose hazards during the underground mining of ore deposits. Therefore, the distinctive features of gas-bearing capacity are an essential part of the mining and geological characterization of such deposits because they provide a basis for establishing and implementing special measures of the gas regime during mining operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas-bearing capacity of ore deposits; methane; hydrogen; abiogenic natural gases; morphological types of gases; prevention of gas emissions during mining activities; nepheline-syenite massif gas-bearing capacity of ore deposits; methane; hydrogen; abiogenic natural gases; morphological types of gases; prevention of gas emissions during mining activities; nepheline-syenite massif
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Nivin, V.A. Occurrence Forms, Composition, Distribution, Origin and Potential Hazard of Natural Hydrogen–Hydrocarbon Gases in Ore Deposits of the Khibiny and Lovozero Massifs: A Review. Minerals 2019, 9, 535.

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