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Open AccessReview

The Human Oral Microbiome in Health and Disease: From Sequences to Ecosystems

by Jesse R. Willis 1,2 and Toni Gabaldón 1,2,3,*
1
Barcelona Supercomputing Centre (BCS-CNS), Jordi Girona, 29., 08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020308
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 16 February 2020 / Published: 23 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease)
The human oral cavity is home to an abundant and diverse microbial community (i.e., the oral microbiome), whose composition and roles in health and disease have been the focus of intense research in recent years. Thanks to developments in sequencing-based approaches, such as 16S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding, whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, or meta-transcriptomics, we now can efficiently explore the diversity and roles of oral microbes, even if unculturable. Recent sequencing-based studies have charted oral ecosystems and how they change due to lifestyle or disease conditions. As studies progress, there is increasing evidence of an important role of the oral microbiome in diverse health conditions, which are not limited to diseases of the oral cavity. This, in turn, opens new avenues for microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics that benefit from the easy accessibility of the oral cavity for microbiome monitoring and manipulation. Yet, many challenges remain ahead. In this review, we survey the main sequencing-based methodologies that are currently used to explore the oral microbiome and highlight major findings enabled by these approaches. Finally, we discuss future prospects in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: Oral microbiome; Next generation sequencing; oral diseases; systemic diseases; stomatotypes; microbiome perturbations Oral microbiome; Next generation sequencing; oral diseases; systemic diseases; stomatotypes; microbiome perturbations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Willis, J.R.; Gabaldón, T. The Human Oral Microbiome in Health and Disease: From Sequences to Ecosystems. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 308.

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