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Microorganisms 2019, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7010020

Role of Oral Microbiota in Cancer Development

Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Wieniawskiego 3, 61-712 Poznań, Poland
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Nowadays cancer is the second main cause of death in the world. The most known bacterial carcinogen is Helicobacter pylori. Pathogens that can have an impact on cancer development in the gastrointestinal tract are also found in the oral cavity. Some specific species have been identified that correlate strongly with oral cancer, such as Streptococcus sp., Peptostreptococcus sp., Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Many works have also shown that the oral periopathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis play an important role in the development of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Three mechanisms of action have been suggested in regard to the role of oral microbiota in the pathogenesis of cancer. The first is bacterial stimulation of chronic inflammation. Inflammatory mediators produced in this process cause or facilitate cell proliferation, mutagenesis, oncogene activation, and angiogenesis. The second mechanism attributed to bacteria that may influence the pathogenesis of cancers by affecting cell proliferation is the activation of NF-κB and inhibition of cellular apoptosis. In the third mechanism, bacteria produce some substances that act in a carcinogenic manner. This review presents potentially oncogenic oral bacteria and possible mechanisms of their action on the carcinogenesis of human cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral microbiota; oral cancer; colorectal cancer; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Streptococcus sp.; chronic inflammation; antiapoptotic activity; cancerogenic substances oral microbiota; oral cancer; colorectal cancer; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Streptococcus sp.; chronic inflammation; antiapoptotic activity; cancerogenic substances
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karpiński, T.M. Role of Oral Microbiota in Cancer Development. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 20.

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