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Addendum published on 6 June 2019, see Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 168.
Open AccessReview

PES Pathogens in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Department of Pneumology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona—Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona (UB)—SGR 911—Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (Ciberes), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Respiratory Diseases Unit, Hospital of Sestri Levante, 16039 Sestri Levante, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 49;
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and mortality rates. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen in CAP. However, several bacteria and respiratory viruses are responsible, and approximately 6% of cases are due to the so-called PES (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. Of these, P. aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are the most frequently reported and require different antibiotic therapy to that for typical CAP. It is therefore important to recognize the risk factors for these pathogens to improve the outcomes in patients with CAP. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; PES pathogens; severe pneumonia; community-acquired pneumonia pneumonia; PES pathogens; severe pneumonia; community-acquired pneumonia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cillóniz, C.; Dominedò, C.; Nicolini, A.; Torres, A. PES Pathogens in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 49.

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