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Outbreak History, Biofilm Formation, and Preventive Measures for Control of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula and Infant Care Settings

1
Public Health Microbiology Laboratory, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
2
Cooperative Extension Program, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030077
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
Previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii from 1980 to 2007, Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterium that survives and persists in dry and low-moisture environments, such as powdered infant formula. Although C. sakazakii causes disease in all age groups, infections caused by this pathogen are particularly fatal in infants born premature and those younger than two months. The pathogen has been isolated from various environments such as powdered infant formula manufacturing facilities, healthcare settings, and domestic environments, increasing the chance of infection through cross-contamination. The current study discusses the outbreak history of C. sakazakii and the ability of the microorganism to produce biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. The study further discusses the fate of the pathogen in low-moisture environments, articulates preventive measures for healthcare providers and nursing parents, and delineates interventions that could be utilized in infant formula manufacturing to minimize the risk of contamination with Cronobacter sakazakii. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cronobacter sakazakii; powdered infant formula; Cronobacter outbreaks; preventive measures; infant care setting Cronobacter sakazakii; powdered infant formula; Cronobacter outbreaks; preventive measures; infant care setting
MDPI and ACS Style

Henry, M.; Fouladkhah, A. Outbreak History, Biofilm Formation, and Preventive Measures for Control of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula and Infant Care Settings. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 77.

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    Doi: https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/TZ5PV9
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