Special Issue "Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicolae Corcionivoschi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bacteriology Branch, Veterinary Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5GB, Northern Ireland, UK
Interests: pathogenicity; virulence factors; infection inhibitors; detection methods; interventions at farm level
Dr. Ozan Gundogdu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infection Biology, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Interests: pathogenesis; stress response; survival and persistence; genomics; -omics-based approaches; microbiome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scope of this Special Issue will be to promote the latest research on the pathogenicity of this microorganism, starting with infection mechanisms in humans and colonization strategies in poultry. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in biofilm formation and host colonization is currently necessary in order to identify possible strategies to reduce human infection and to avoid colonization at primary production. Elucidation of the interaction between Campylobacter spp. and other microorganisms using in vitro and in vivo systems will help us to understand how this pathogen behaves at the microbiome level, offering us information regarding interactions with other microorganisms and the impact on colonization ability. Research in the development of vaccines against Campylobacter spp. is also of interest and we encourage such submissions.

Prof. Dr. Nicolae Corcionivoschi
Dr. Ozan Gundogdu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pathogenicity
  • virulence factors
  • type 6 secretion system
  • vaccines
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • infection models
  • intervention strategies at primary production
  • biofilm
  • genomics

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter
Microorganisms 2021, 9(6), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061241 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world, with the species Campylobacter jejuni being responsible for over 80% of Campylobacter infections [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)

Research

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Article
Toll-Like Receptor-4 Is Involved in Mediating Intestinal and Extra-Intestinal Inflammation in Campylobacter coli-Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10−/− Mice
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121882 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Human Campylobacter infections are emerging worldwide and constitute significant health burdens. We recently showed that the immunopathological sequelae in Campylobacter jejuni-infected mice were due to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 dependent immune responses induced by bacterial lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying [...] Read more.
Human Campylobacter infections are emerging worldwide and constitute significant health burdens. We recently showed that the immunopathological sequelae in Campylobacter jejuni-infected mice were due to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 dependent immune responses induced by bacterial lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying Campylobacter coli-host interactions are scarce, however. Therefore, we analyzed C. coli-induced campylobacteriosis in secondary abiotic IL-10−/− mice with and without TLR4. Mice were infected perorally with a human C. coli isolate or with a murine commensal Escherichia coli as apathogenic, non-invasive control. Independent from TLR4, C. coli and E. coli stably colonized the gastrointestinal tract, but only C. coli induced clinical signs of campylobacteriosis. TLR4−/− IL-10−/− mice, however, displayed less frequently fecal blood and less distinct histopathological and apoptotic sequelae in the colon versus IL-10−/− counterparts on day 28 following C. coli infection. Furthermore, C. coli-induced colonic immune cell responses were less pronounced in TLR4−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL-10−/− mice and accompanied by lower pro-inflammatory mediator concentrations in the intestines and the liver of the former versus the latter. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that TLR4 is involved in mediating C. coli-LOS-induced immune responses in intestinal and extra-intestinal compartments during murine campylobacteriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Importance of the Farm Environment and Wildlife for Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in A Pasture-Based Dairy Herd
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121877 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
Cattle are an established reservoir of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Our six-month study aimed to evaluate sources and pathways governing long-term presence of C. jejuni in a pasture-based dairy herd. C. jejuni was detected in all sample types (soil, pasture, [...] Read more.
Cattle are an established reservoir of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Our six-month study aimed to evaluate sources and pathways governing long-term presence of C. jejuni in a pasture-based dairy herd. C. jejuni was detected in all sample types (soil, pasture, stock drinking water, bird, rodents and cow faeces). It was persistently detected from cow (54%; 49/90 samples) and bird (36%; 77/211) faeces. Genetic comparison of 252 C. jejuni isolates identified 30 Multi-Locus Sequence Types (ST). ST-61 and ST-42 were persistent in the herd and accounted for 43% of the cow isolates. They were also detected on pasture collected from fields both recently and not recently grazed, indicating that grazed pasture is an important pathway and reservoir for horizontal transmission among cows. ST-61 accounted for 9% of the bird isolates and was detected at four of the six sampling events, suggesting that bird populations might contribute to the cycling of ruminant-adapted genotypes on-farm. Overall, the results indicated that management of grazed pasture and supplementary feed contaminated by bird droppings could be targeted to effectively reduce transmission of C. jejuni to dairy herds, the farm environment and ultimately to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Resveratrol Alleviates Acute Campylobacter jejuni Induced Enterocolitis in a Preclinical Murine Intervention Study
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121858 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
The polyphenolic compound resveratrol has been shown to exert health-beneficial properties. Given globally emerging Campylobacter infections in humans, we addressed potential anti-pathogenic, immuno-modulatory and intestinal epithelial barrier preserving properties of synthetic resveratrol in the present preclinical intervention study applying a murine acute campylobacteriosis [...] Read more.
The polyphenolic compound resveratrol has been shown to exert health-beneficial properties. Given globally emerging Campylobacter infections in humans, we addressed potential anti-pathogenic, immuno-modulatory and intestinal epithelial barrier preserving properties of synthetic resveratrol in the present preclinical intervention study applying a murine acute campylobacteriosis model. Two days following peroral C. jejuni infection, secondary abiotic IL-10−/− mice were either subjected to resveratrol or placebo via the drinking water. Whereas placebo mice suffered from acute enterocolitis at day 6 post-infection, resveratrol treatment did not only lead to improved clinical conditions, but also to less pronounced colonic epithelial apoptosis as compared to placebo application. Furthermore, C. jejuni induced innate and adaptive immune cell responses were dampened in the large intestines upon resveratrol challenge and accompanied by less colonic nitric oxide secretion in the resveratrol versus the placebo cohort. Functional analyses revealed that resveratrol treatment could effectively rescue colonic epithelial barrier function in C. jejuni infected mice. Strikingly, the disease-alleviating effects of resveratrol could additionally be found in extra-intestinal and also systemic compartments at day 6 post-infection. For the first time, our current preclinical intervention study provides evidence that peroral resveratrol treatment exerts potent disease-alleviating effects during acute experimental campylobacteriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni Slaughterhouse and Surface-Water Isolates Indicates Better Adaptation of Slaughterhouse Isolates to the Chicken Host Environment
Microorganisms 2020, 8(11), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111693 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is an emerging food-borne pathogen that poses a high risk to human health. Knowledge of the strain source can contribute significantly to an understanding of this pathogen, and can lead to improved control measures in the food-processing industry. In this study, [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is an emerging food-borne pathogen that poses a high risk to human health. Knowledge of the strain source can contribute significantly to an understanding of this pathogen, and can lead to improved control measures in the food-processing industry. In this study, slaughterhouse and surface-water isolates of C. jejuni were characterized and compared in terms of their antimicrobial resistance profiles and adhesion to stainless steel and chicken skin. Resistance of C. jejuni biofilm cells to benzalkonium chloride and Satureja montana ethanolic extract was also tested. The data show that the slaughterhouse isolates are more resistant to ciprofloxacin, and adhere better to stainless steel at 42 °C, and at 37 °C in 50% chicken juice. Additionally, biofilm cells of the isolate with the greatest adhesion potential (C. jejuni S6) were harvested and tested for resistance to S. montana ethanolic extract, benzalkonium chloride, and erythromycin; and for efflux-pump activity, as compared to their planktonic cells. The biofilm cells showed increased resistance to both S. montana ethanolic extract and erythromycin, and increased efflux-pump activity. These data indicate adaptation of C. jejuni slaughterhouse isolates to the chicken host, as well as increased biofilm cell resistance due to increased efflux-pump activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Immune-modulatory Properties of the Octapeptide NAP in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Mice Suffering from Acute Enterocolitis
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060802 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Human infections with the food-borne zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni are progressively rising and constitute serious global public health and socioeconomic burdens. Hence, application of compounds with disease-alleviating properties are required to combat campylobacteriosis and post-infectious sequelae. In our preclinical intervention study applying an [...] Read more.
Human infections with the food-borne zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni are progressively rising and constitute serious global public health and socioeconomic burdens. Hence, application of compounds with disease-alleviating properties are required to combat campylobacteriosis and post-infectious sequelae. In our preclinical intervention study applying an acute C. jejuni induced enterocolitis model, we surveyed the anti-pathogenic and immune-modulatory effects of the octapeptide NAP which is well-known for its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, secondary abiotic IL-10−/− mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni and intraperitoneally treated with synthetic NAP from day 2 until day 5 post-infection. NAP-treatment did not affect gastrointestinal C. jejuni colonization but could alleviate clinical signs of infection that was accompanied by less pronounced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells and enhancement of cell regenerative measures on day 6 post-infection. Moreover, NAP-treatment resulted in less distinct innate and adaptive pro-inflammatory immune responses that were not restricted to the intestinal tract but could also be observed in extra-intestinal and even systemic compartments. NAP-treatment further resulted in less frequent translocation of viable pathogens from the intestinal tract to extra-intestinal including systemic tissue sites. For the first time, we here provide evidence that NAP application constitutes a promising option to combat acute campylobacteriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Biological Machine Learning Combined with Campylobacter Population Genomics Reveals Virulence Gene Allelic Variants Cause Disease
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040549 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Highly dimensional data generated from bacterial whole-genome sequencing is providing an unprecedented scale of information that requires an appropriate statistical analysis framework to infer biological function from populations of genomes. The application of genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods is an appropriate framework for [...] Read more.
Highly dimensional data generated from bacterial whole-genome sequencing is providing an unprecedented scale of information that requires an appropriate statistical analysis framework to infer biological function from populations of genomes. The application of genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods is an appropriate framework for bacterial population genome analysis that yields a list of candidate genes associated with a phenotype, but it provides an unranked measure of importance. Here, we validated a novel framework to define infection mechanism using the combination of GWAS, machine learning, and bacterial population genomics that ranked allelic variants that accurately identified disease. This approach parsed a dataset of 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels that resulted in an importance ranked list of associated alleles of porA in Campylobacter jejuni using spatiotemporal analysis over 30 years. We validated this approach using previously proven laboratory experimental alleles from an in vivo guinea pig abortion model. This framework, termed μPathML, defined intestinal and extraintestinal groups that have differential allelic porA variants that cause abortion. Divergent variants containing indels that defeated automated annotation were rescued using biological context and knowledge that resulted in defining rare, divergent variants that were maintained in the population over two continents and 30 years. This study defines the capability of machine learning coupled with GWAS and population genomics to simultaneously identify and rank alleles to define their role in infectious disease mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Virulence Traits of Inpatient Campylobacter jejuni Isolates, and a Transcriptomic Approach to Identify Potential Genes Maintaining Intracellular Survival
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040531 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
There are still major gaps in our understanding of the bacterial factors that influence the outcomes of human Campylobacter jejuni infection. The aim of this study was to compare the virulence-associated features of 192 human C. jejuni strains isolated from hospitalized patients with [...] Read more.
There are still major gaps in our understanding of the bacterial factors that influence the outcomes of human Campylobacter jejuni infection. The aim of this study was to compare the virulence-associated features of 192 human C. jejuni strains isolated from hospitalized patients with diarrhoea (150/192, 78.1%), bloody diarrhoea (23/192, 11.9%), gastroenteritis (3/192, 1.6%), ulcerative colitis (3/192, 1.5%), and stomach ache (2/192, 1.0%). Traits were analysed with genotypic and phenotypic methods, including PCR and extracellular matrix protein (ECMP) binding, adhesion, and invasion capacities. Results were studied alongside patient symptoms, but no distinct links with them could be determined. Since the capacity of C. jejuni to invade host epithelial cells is one of its most enigmatic attributes, a high throughput transcriptomic analysis was performed in the third hour of internalization with a C. jejuni strain originally isolated from bloody diarrhoea. Characteristic groups of genes were significantly upregulated, outlining a survival strategy of internalized C. jejuni comprising genes related (1) to oxidative stress; (2) to a protective sheath formed by the capsule, LOS, N-, and O- glycosylation systems; (3) to dynamic metabolic activity supported by different translocases and the membrane-integrated component of the flagellar apparatus; and (4) to hitherto unknown genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Molecular Dissection of the Campylobacter jejuni CadF and FlpA Virulence Proteins in Binding to Host Cell Fibronectin
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030389 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni, a zoonotic pathogen that frequently colonizes poultry, possesses two Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecule(s) (MSCRAMMs) termed CadF and FlpA that bind to the glycoprotein fibronectin (FN). Previous to this study, it was not known whether the CadF and [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni, a zoonotic pathogen that frequently colonizes poultry, possesses two Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecule(s) (MSCRAMMs) termed CadF and FlpA that bind to the glycoprotein fibronectin (FN). Previous to this study, it was not known whether the CadF and FlpA proteins were functionally redundant or if both were required to potentiate host cell binding and signaling processes. We addressed these questions by generating a complete repertoire of cadF and flpA mutants and complemented isolates, and performing multiple phenotypic assays. Both CadF and FlpA were found to be necessary for the maximal binding of C. jejuni to FN and to host cells. In addition, both CadF and FlpA are required for the delivery of the C. jejuni Cia effector proteins into the cytosol of host target cells, which in turn activates the MAPK signaling pathway (Erk 1/2) that is required for the C. jejuni invasion of host cells. These data demonstrate the non-redundant and bi-functional nature of these two C. jejuni FN-binding proteins. Taken together, the C. jejuni CadF and FlpA adhesins facilitate the binding of C. jejuni to the host cells, permit delivery of effector proteins into the cytosol of a host target cell, and aid in the rewiring of host cell signaling pathways to alter host cell behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Differential Distribution of the wlaN and cgtB Genes, Associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, in Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Humans, Broiler Chickens, and Wild Birds
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030325 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni causes campylobacteriosis, a bacterial gastroenteritis with high incidence worldwide. Moreover, C. jejuni infection can trigger the polyneuropathic disorder denominated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The C. jejuni strains that can elicit GBS carry either wlaN or cgtB, coding both genes for a β-1,3-galactosyltransferase [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni causes campylobacteriosis, a bacterial gastroenteritis with high incidence worldwide. Moreover, C. jejuni infection can trigger the polyneuropathic disorder denominated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The C. jejuni strains that can elicit GBS carry either wlaN or cgtB, coding both genes for a β-1,3-galactosyltransferase enzyme that is required for the production of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOSSIAL). We described a differential prevalence of the genes wlaN and cgtB in C. jejuni isolates from three different ecological niches: humans, broiler chickens, and wild birds. The distribution of both genes, which is similar between broiler chicken and human isolates and distinct when compared to the wild bird isolates, suggests a host-dependent distribution. Moreover, the prevalence of the wlaN and cgtB genes seems to be restricted to some clonal complexes. Gene sequencing identified the presence of new variants of the G- homopolymeric tract within the wlaN gene. Furthermore, we detected two variants of a G rich region within the cgtB gene, suggesting that, similarly to wlaN, the G-tract in the cgtB gene mediates the phase variation control of cgtB expression. Caco-2 cell invasion assays indicate that there is no evident correlation between the production of LOSSIAL and the ability to invade eukaryotic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Development of a Lyophilization Process for Campylobacter Bacteriophage Storage and Transport
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020282 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Bacteriophages are a sustainable alternative to control pathogenic bacteria in the post-antibiotic era. Despite promising reports, there are still obstacles to phage use, notably titer stability and transport-associated expenses for applications in food and agriculture. In this study, we have developed a lyophilization [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages are a sustainable alternative to control pathogenic bacteria in the post-antibiotic era. Despite promising reports, there are still obstacles to phage use, notably titer stability and transport-associated expenses for applications in food and agriculture. In this study, we have developed a lyophilization approach to maintain phage titers, ensure efficacy and reduce transport costs of Campylobacter bacteriophages. Lyophilization methods were adopted with various excipients to enhance stabilization in combination with packaging options for international transport. Lyophilization of Eucampyvirinae CP30A using tryptone formed a cake that limited processing titer reduction to 0.35 ± 0.09 log10 PFU mL−1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the initial titer reduction was associated with capsid collapse of a subpopulation. Freeze-dried phages were generally stable under refrigerated vacuum conditions and showed no significant titer changes over 3 months incubation at 4 °C (p = 0.29). Reduced stability was observed for lyophilized phages that were incubated either at 30 °C under vacuum or at 4 °C at 70% or 90% relative humidity. Refrigerated international transport and rehydration of the cake resulted in a total phage titer reduction of 0.81 ± 0.44 log10 PFU mL−1. A significantly higher titer loss was observed for phages that were not refrigerated during transport (2.03 ± 0.32 log10 PFU mL−1). We propose that lyophilization offers a convenient method to preserve and transport Campylobacter phages, with minimal titer reduction after the drying process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Prevalence, Population Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter coli Isolated in Italian Swine at Slaughterhouse
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020222 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Campylobacter spp. are among the microorganisms most commonly associated with foodborne disease. Swine are known to be the main reservoir of Campylobacter coli and a possible source infection of humans as a result of carcass contamination at slaughter. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Campylobacter spp. are among the microorganisms most commonly associated with foodborne disease. Swine are known to be the main reservoir of Campylobacter coli and a possible source infection of humans as a result of carcass contamination at slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. coli contamination in swine carcasses, the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of isolates and the genetic diversity between strains obtained from swine and those isolated from humans. The prevalence of contamination was higher on carcasses (50.4%) than in faeces (32.9%). The 162 C. coli isolated from swine were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The results of PFGE indicated a high genetic diversity among the isolates, with 25 different PFGE types. MLST assigned 51 sequence types (STs) to isolates. The most common genotype was ST-854 (16.04%), ST-9264 (10.49 %) and ST-1016 (6.08 %). Results of AMR showed a high resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones together with aminoglycosides and tetracycline. Many strains were multi-resistant with predominant R-type TeSCipNa (57%). Five resistance genes were detected along with mutation in the gyrA gene. A strong correlation between phenotypic and genotypic resistance was found for fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. Genetic profiles obtained in swine isolates were compared to those of 11 human strains. All human strains and 64.19% of animal strains (104/162) were assigned to the ST-828 clonal complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Article
Hyper-Aerotolerant Campylobacter coli from Duck Sources and Its Potential Threat to Public Health: Virulence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genetic Relatedness
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110579 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Campylobacter, a common foodborne human pathogen, is considered sensitive to oxygen. Recently, aerotolerant (AT) Campylobacter jejuni with the ability to survive under aerobic stress has been reported. Here, we investigated the prevalence of hyper-aerotolerant (HAT) Campylobacter coli from duck sources (118 carcasses [...] Read more.
Campylobacter, a common foodborne human pathogen, is considered sensitive to oxygen. Recently, aerotolerant (AT) Campylobacter jejuni with the ability to survive under aerobic stress has been reported. Here, we investigated the prevalence of hyper-aerotolerant (HAT) Campylobacter coli from duck sources (118 carcasses and meat) and its characteristics to assess potential impacts on public health. Half of 56 C. coli isolates were HAT and most harbored various virulence genes including flaA, cadF, cdtA, ceuB, and wlaN. Moreover, 98.2% of C. coli isolates showed resistance to quinolones, including ciprofloxacin (CIP), and nine (16.1%) showed high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL) and most of these were HAT. Based on genetic relatedness between C. coli from duck sources and those from human sources (PubMLST and NCBI), HAT isolates sharing the same MLST sequence types were significantly more prevalent than those not sharing the same sequence types as those from human sources. Therefore, HAT C. coli is prevalent in duck sources, and is most likely transmitted to humans through the food chain given its aerotolerance. This being so, it might pose a threat to public health given its virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study will assist in improving control strategies to reduce farm-to-table HAT C. coli transmission to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Review

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Review
A Systematic Review of Campylobacter jejuni Vaccine Candidates for Chickens
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020397 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni infection linked to the consumption of contaminated poultry products is one of the leading causes of human enteric illness worldwide. Vaccination of chickens is one of the potential strategies that could be used to control C. jejuni colonization. To date, various [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni infection linked to the consumption of contaminated poultry products is one of the leading causes of human enteric illness worldwide. Vaccination of chickens is one of the potential strategies that could be used to control C. jejuni colonization. To date, various C. jejuni vaccines using potential antigens have been evaluated, but a challenge in identifying the most effective formulation is the wide variability in vaccine efficacies reported. A systematic review was undertaken to compare C. jejuni vaccine studies. Based upon specific selection criteria eligible papers were identified and included in the analysis. Vaccine efficacy reported from different C. jejuni antigens, vaccine types, and vaccination regimens reported in these papers were reviewed. Our analysis shows that total outer membrane proteins and cysteine ABC transporter substrate-binding protein were among the most efficacious vaccine antigen candidates reported. This review also highlights the importance of the need for increased consistency in the way C. jejuni vaccine studies in poultry are designed and reported in order to be able to undertake a robust comparison of C. jejuni vaccine candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Review
Novel Clinical Campylobacter jejuni Infection Models Based on Sensitization of Mice to Lipooligosaccharide, a Major Bacterial Factor Triggering Innate Immune Responses in Human Campylobacteriosis
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040482 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Human Campylobacter jejuni infections inducing campylobacteriosis including post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis are rising worldwide and progress into a global burden of high socioeconomic impact. Intestinal immunopathology underlying campylobacteriosis is a classical response of the innate immune system characterized [...] Read more.
Human Campylobacter jejuni infections inducing campylobacteriosis including post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis are rising worldwide and progress into a global burden of high socioeconomic impact. Intestinal immunopathology underlying campylobacteriosis is a classical response of the innate immune system characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages which cause tissue destruction, barrier defects and malabsorption leading to bloody diarrhea. Clinical studies revealed that enteritis and post-infectious morbidities of human C. jejuni infections are strongly dependent on the structure of pathogenic lipooligosaccharides (LOS) triggering the innate immune system via Toll-like-receptor (TLR)-4 signaling. Compared to humans, mice display an approximately 10,000 times weaker TLR-4 response and a pronounced colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni maintained by the murine gut microbiota. In consequence, investigations of campylobacteriosis have been hampered by the lack of experimental animal models. We here summarize recent progress made in the development of murine C. jejuni infection models that are based on the abolishment of CR by modulating the murine gut microbiota and by sensitization of mice to LOS. These advances support the major role of LOS driven innate immunity in pathogenesis of campylobacteriosis including post-infectious autoimmune diseases and promote the preclinical evaluation of novel pharmaceutical strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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Review
Bridging the Gap: A Role for Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030452 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Cases of Campylobacteriosis are common, as the organism is an avian commensal and is passed on to humans through contaminated poultry meat, water, and food preparation areas. Although typically a [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Cases of Campylobacteriosis are common, as the organism is an avian commensal and is passed on to humans through contaminated poultry meat, water, and food preparation areas. Although typically a fastidious organism, C. jejuni can survive outside the avian intestinal tract until it is able to reach a human host. It has long been considered that biofilms play a key role in transmission of this pathogen. The aim of this review is to examine factors that trigger biofilm formation in C. jejuni. A range of environmental elements have been shown to initiate biofilm formation, which are then affected by a suite of intrinsic factors. We also aim to further investigate the role that biofilms may play in the life cycle of this organism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter)
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