Vacuum Nanoelectronics: Components and Devices

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "E:Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 3497

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, 15700 Athens, Greece
Interests: vacuum nanoelectronics; semiconductor devices; electronic structure of semiconductors; tunneling theory

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

A few decades ago, vacuum electronics were synonymous with tube amplifiers but with the advent of nanoelectronics, it has entered many diverse fields related directly or indirectly to the phenomenon of tunneling and field electron emission. Nowadays, electron nanoemitters are routinely used in many forms of microscopy, especially Field Emission Microscopy, while  nanoemitters  form integral parts of present-day lithography equipment. Furthermore, in our energy-saving clean world, thermoelectric energy converters which rely on field electron emission have acquired a significant role in vacuum nanoelectronics. On the other hand, X-ray and display technologies continue to rely on vacuum nanoelectronic sources, whereas the latter have found new applications in, for example, THz technology, the vacuum transistor, and even the propulsion of future spacecraft. This issue invites researchers to submit original articles and review papers on (but not limited to) the fabrication, characterization, theory and use of the above devices, including the theory of the newly developed and highly relevant attosecond spectroscopy.

Prof. John P. Xanthakis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoelectronics for X-ray sources
  • Field emission displays
  • Electron emitters for microscopy and lithography
  • Vacuum transistors
  • Thermoelectric energy conversion
  • Photo-induced electron nanosources
  • Nanoelectronics of THz technology
  • Field emission and microplasma
  • Modern theory of field emission and electron devices

Published Papers (2 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

7 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Electronic Processes at the Carbon-Covered (100) Collector Tungsten Surface
by Harilaos J. Gotsis, Naoum C. Bacalis and John P. Xanthakis
Micromachines 2022, 13(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13060888 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
We have performed density functional VASP calculations of a pure and of a carbon-covered (100) tungsten surface under the presence of an electric field E directed away from the surface. Our aim is to answer the question of an increased penetrability of electrons [...] Read more.
We have performed density functional VASP calculations of a pure and of a carbon-covered (100) tungsten surface under the presence of an electric field E directed away from the surface. Our aim is to answer the question of an increased penetrability of electrons at the collector side of a nanometric tunnel diode when covered by carbon atoms, a purely quantum mechanical effect related to the value of the workfunction Φ. To obtain Φ at a non-zero electric field we have extrapolated back to the electrical surface the straight line representing the linear increase in the potential energy with distance outside the metal-vacuum interface. We have found that under the presence of E the workfunction Φ = Evac − EF of the (100) pure tungsten surface has a minor dependence on E. However, the carbon-covered tungsten (100) surface workfunction Φ(C − W) has a stronger E dependence. Φ(C − W) decreases continuously with the electric field. This decrease is ΔΦ = 0.08 eV when E = 1 V/nm. This ΔΦ is explained by our calculated changes with electric field of the electronic density of both pure and carbon-covered tungsten. The observed phenomena may be relevant to other surfaces of carbon-covered tungsten and may explain the reported collector dependence of current in Scanning Field Emission Microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Nanoelectronics: Components and Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4811 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Spontaneous Surface Modifications on Polycrystalline Cu Due to Electric Fields
by Kristian Kuppart, Simon Vigonski, Alvo Aabloo, Ye Wang, Flyura Djurabekova, Andreas Kyritsakis and Veronika Zadin
Micromachines 2021, 12(10), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12101178 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
We present a credible mechanism of spontaneous field emitter formation in high electric field applications, such as Compact Linear Collider in CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research). Discovery of such phenomena opens new pathway to tame the highly destructive and performance limiting [...] Read more.
We present a credible mechanism of spontaneous field emitter formation in high electric field applications, such as Compact Linear Collider in CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research). Discovery of such phenomena opens new pathway to tame the highly destructive and performance limiting vacuum breakdown phenomena. Vacuum breakdowns in particle accelerators and other devices operating at high electric fields is a common problem in the operation of these devices. It has been proposed that the onset of vacuum breakdowns is associated with appearance of surface protrusions while the device is in operation under high electric field. Moreover, the breakdown tolerance of an electrode material was correlated with the type of lattice structure of the material. Although biased diffusion under field has been shown to cause growth of significantly field-enhancing tips starting from initial nm-size protrusions, the mechanisms and the dynamics of the growth of the latter have not been studied yet. In the current paper we conduct molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline copper surfaces and show the possibility of protrusion growth under the stress exerted on the surface by an applied electrostatic field. We show the importance of grain boundaries on the protrusion formation and establish a linear relationship between the necessary electrostatic stress for protrusion formation and the temperature of the system. Finally, we show that the time for protrusion formation decreases with the applied electrostatic stress, we give the Arrhenius extrapolation to the case of lower fields, and we present a general discussion of the protrusion formation mechanisms in the case of polycrystalline copper surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Nanoelectronics: Components and Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop