Advanced Micro/Nano Sensors and Actuators for Disease Diagnosis, Monitoring and Treatment

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "E:Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 13150

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB, UK
Interests: micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS); sensors and actuators; energy harvesters; wearable and implantable biomedical devices

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB, UK
Interests: disruptive technologies for next-generation computing platforms; micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems; sensors and actuators; bio-MEMS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growth of the elderly population and development of chronic and degenerative diseases require advanced systems for on-time diagnosis and continuous monitoring, in order to provide the best assistive solutions/treatments to patients. These systems consist of sensors and actuators that directly interact with the body or organs, as wearable and implantable systems or indirectly in contact with soft organs through integration with medical equipment. Therefore, the specifications of sensors and actuators range from soft, thin and stretchable components (e.g., brain, nerve and heart electrodes, and soft actuators) to rigid and low-power components (e.g., micro-/nanoelectromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) sensors and actuators). The application of these systems paves the way towards smart healthcare.

The aim of this Issue is to present the latest developments of system solutions for overcoming unmet clinical needs. Therefore, scientific contributions in the development of sensors and actuators for electronic muscles/skins, body-/organ-assist or monitoring devices, smart diagnostics, monitoring, and surgical equipment, and drug-delivery systems are welcome.

Dr. Faezeh Arab Hassani
Dr. Dinesh Pamunuwa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Implantable and wearable
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Diagnosis, monitoring and treatment applications
  • Smart medical equipment
  • Body-/organ-assist or monitoring devices

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 6495 KiB  
Article
Dual-Frequency Impedance Matching Network Design Using Genetic Algorithm for Power Ultrasound Transducer
by Wenchang Huang, Jiaqi Li, Shuai Wu, Yan He, Xiangxin Li, Zhitian Shen and Yaoyao Cui
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030344 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Dual-frequency ultrasounds have demonstrated significant potential in augmenting thermal ablation efficiency for tumor treatment. Ensuring proper impedance matching between the dual-frequency transducer and the power amplifier system is imperative for equipment safety. This paper introduces a novel dual-frequency impedance matching network utilizing L-shaped [...] Read more.
Dual-frequency ultrasounds have demonstrated significant potential in augmenting thermal ablation efficiency for tumor treatment. Ensuring proper impedance matching between the dual-frequency transducer and the power amplifier system is imperative for equipment safety. This paper introduces a novel dual-frequency impedance matching network utilizing L-shaped topology and employing a genetic algorithm to compute component values. Implementation involved an adjustable capacitor and inductor network to achieve dual-frequency matching. Subsequently, the acoustic parameters of the dual-frequency HIFU transducer were evaluated before and after matching, and the effects of ultrasound thermal ablation with and without matching were compared. The proposed dual-frequency impedance matching system effectively reduced the standing wave ratio at the two resonance points while enhancing transmission efficiency. Thermal ablation experiments with matching circuits showed improved temperature rise efficiencies at both frequencies, resulting in an expanded ablation zone. The dual-frequency impedance matching method significantly enhances the transmission efficiency of the dual-frequency ultrasound system at two operational frequencies, thereby ensuring equipment safety. It holds promising prospects for application in dual-frequency ultrasound treatment. Full article
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20 pages, 7292 KiB  
Article
An Isomorphic Interactive Device for the Interventional Surgical Robot after In Vivo Study
by Cheng Yang, Shuxiang Guo and Xianqiang Bao
Micromachines 2022, 13(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010111 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Interventional surgical robots are widely used in neurosurgery to improve surgeons’ working environment and surgical safety. Based on the actual operational needs of surgeons’ feedback during preliminary in vivo experiments, this paper proposed an isomorphic interactive master controller for the master–slave interventional surgical [...] Read more.
Interventional surgical robots are widely used in neurosurgery to improve surgeons’ working environment and surgical safety. Based on the actual operational needs of surgeons’ feedback during preliminary in vivo experiments, this paper proposed an isomorphic interactive master controller for the master–slave interventional surgical robot. The isomorphic design of the controller allows surgeons to utilize their surgical skills during remote interventional surgeries. The controller uses the catheter and guidewire as the operating handle, the same as during actual surgeries. The collaborative operational structure design and the working methods followed the clinical operational skills. The linear force feedback and torque feedback devices were designed to improve the safety of surgeries under remote operating conditions. An eccentric force compensation was conducted to achieve accurate force feedback. Several experiments were carried out, such as calibration experiments, master–slave control performance evaluation experiments, and operation comparison experiments on the novel and previously used controllers. The experimental results show that the proposed controller can perform complex operations in remote surgery applications and has the potential for further animal experiment evaluations. Full article
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Review

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28 pages, 4904 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Microrobots for In Vivo Cargo Delivery: A Review
by Jialin Lin, Qingzheng Cong and Dandan Zhang
Micromachines 2024, 15(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15050664 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Magnetic microrobots, with their small size and agile maneuverability, are well-suited for navigating the intricate and confined spaces within the human body. In vivo cargo delivery within the context of microrobotics involves the use of microrobots to transport and administer drugs and cells [...] Read more.
Magnetic microrobots, with their small size and agile maneuverability, are well-suited for navigating the intricate and confined spaces within the human body. In vivo cargo delivery within the context of microrobotics involves the use of microrobots to transport and administer drugs and cells directly to the targeted regions within a living organism. The principal aim is to enhance the precision, efficiency, and safety of therapeutic interventions. Despite their potential, there is a shortage of comprehensive reviews on the use of magnetic microrobots for in vivo cargo delivery from both research and engineering perspectives, particularly those published after 2019. This review addresses this gap by disentangling recent advancements in magnetic microrobots for in vivo cargo delivery. It summarizes their actuation platforms, structural designs, cargo loading and release methods, tracking methods, navigation algorithms, and degradation and retrieval methods. Finally, it highlights potential research directions. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the current landscape of magnetic microrobot technologies for in vivo cargo delivery. It highlights their present implementation methods, capabilities, and prospective research directions. The review also examines significant innovations and inherent challenges in biomedical applications. Full article
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31 pages, 5810 KiB  
Review
Advances in Assistive Electronic Device Solutions for Urology
by Kieran Holmes-Martin, Minghui Zhu, Shujun Xiao and Faezeh Arab Hassani
Micromachines 2022, 13(4), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13040551 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7304
Abstract
Recent technology advances have led urology to become one of the leading specialities to utilise novel electronic systems to manage urological ailments. Contemporary bladder management strategies such as urinary catheters can provide a solution but leave the user mentally and physically debilitated. The [...] Read more.
Recent technology advances have led urology to become one of the leading specialities to utilise novel electronic systems to manage urological ailments. Contemporary bladder management strategies such as urinary catheters can provide a solution but leave the user mentally and physically debilitated. The unique properties of modern electronic devices, i.e., flexibility, stretchability, and biocompatibility, have allowed a plethora of new technologies to emerge. Many novel electronic device solutions in urology have been developed for treating impaired bladder disorders. These disorders include overactive bladder (OAB), underactive bladder (UAB) and other-urinary-affecting disorders (OUAD). This paper reviews common causes and conservative treatment strategies for OAB, UAB and OUAD, discussing the challenges and drawbacks of such treatments. Subsequently, this paper gives insight into clinically approved and research-based electronic advances in urology. Advances in this area cover bladder-stimulation and -monitoring devices, robot-assistive surgery, and bladder and sphincter prosthesis. This study aims to introduce the latest advances in electronic solutions for urology, comparing their advantages and disadvantages, and concluding with open problems for future urological device solutions. Full article
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