Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2019 International Conference on Smart Sensors (ICSS)"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kin-Fong Lei
Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering Chang Gung University, Taiwan
Interests: bio-microfluidics; bio-sensing; rapid diagnostics; cancer biology; orthopaedics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2019 International Conference on Smart Sensors (ICSS) will be held from 3–4 June 2019 at Sheraton, Hsinchu, Taiwan. As with last year, the conference is a joint event of the 24th Symposium of Association for Chemical Sensors and the 22nd Nano Engineering and Microsystem Technology Conference.

The ICSS is a premier conference in Taiwan focusing on the promotion of advanced research and industrial collaboration. We encourage contributions of significant and original works on sensors, microfluidics and MEMS/NEMS. Manuscripts submitted to the journal Micromachines should be extended by at least 40% compared with the conference paper. The conference will cover the following main topics:

A. Chemical Sensors

A1. Transducer-Based Chemical Sensors
A2. Emerging Sensing Technologies
A3. Environmental, Energy, Agricultural, etc. Chemical Sensors

B. Biosensors

B1. Nanomaterial-Based Sensors
B2. Food, Pharmaceutical, Clinical, etc. Biosensors
B3. Semiconductor and Electric Biosensing Technologies

C. Microfluidics for Medical Applications

C1. Lab-on-a-chip Microdevices
C2. Portable and Emerging Microfluidics Technologies
C3. Medical Application Techniques Classified by Clinical Subjects

D. MEMS and NEMS Fabrication

D1. Material and Device Characterization
D2. Mechanical/Physical Sensors and Microsystems
D3. Micro- and Nanoengineering

E. Microfluidics

E1. Micro and Nano Fluidic Devices and Systems
E2. Microfluidics for Separations, Reactions, and Synthesis
E3. Fundamentals in Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

F. Applied MEMS and Applied Microfluidics

F1. Energy Harvesting/Power/RF/Optical/Acoustic MEMS
F2. BioMEMS and Integrated Microfluidic Platforms
F3. Enabling Technologies for IoT Applications

The papers attracting the most interest at the conference, or that make novel contributions, will be selected for publication in Micromachines. These papers will be peer-reviewed for validation of the research results, developments and applications.

Prof. Kin Fong Lei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Drilling of Sapphire Using Electro Chemical Discharge Machining
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040377 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) refers to a non-traditional machining method for performing effective material removal on non-conductive hard and brittle materials. To increase the ECDM machining efficiency, traditionally, the method of increasing the machining voltage or increasing the electrolyte concentration is used. These [...] Read more.
Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) refers to a non-traditional machining method for performing effective material removal on non-conductive hard and brittle materials. To increase the ECDM machining efficiency, traditionally, the method of increasing the machining voltage or increasing the electrolyte concentration is used. These methods can also cause overcut reaming of the drilled holes and a rough surface on the heat affected area. In this study, an innovative combinational machining assisted method was proposed and a self-developed coaxial-jet nozzle was used in order to combine two assisted machining methods, tool electrode rotation and coaxial-jet, simultaneously. Accordingly, the electrolyte of the machining area was maintained at the low liquid level and the electrolyte was renewed at the same time, thereby allowing the spark discharge to be concentrated at the contact surface between the front end of the tool electrode and the machined material. In addition, prior to the machining and micro-drilling, the output of the machining energy assisted mechanism was further controlled and reduced. For the study disclosed in this paper, experiments were conducted to use different voltage parameters to machine sapphire specimens of a 640 μm thickness in KOH electrolyte at a concentration of 5 M. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Characterization of an Embossed Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Cell
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020217 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) is a promising ultrasonic transducer in medical diagnosis and therapeutic applications that demand a high output pressure. The concept of a CMUT with an annular embossed pattern on a membrane working in collapse mode is proposed to further [...] Read more.
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) is a promising ultrasonic transducer in medical diagnosis and therapeutic applications that demand a high output pressure. The concept of a CMUT with an annular embossed pattern on a membrane working in collapse mode is proposed to further improve the output pressure. To evaluate the performance of an embossed CMUT cell, both the embossed and uniform membrane CMUT cells were fabricated in the same die with a customized six-mask sacrificial release process. An annular nickel pattern with the dimension of 3 μ m × 2 μ m (width × height) was formed on a full top electrode CMUT to realize an embossed CMUT cell. Experimental characterization was carried out with optical, electrical, and acoustic instruments on the embossed and uniform CMUT cells. The embossed CMUT cell achieved 27.1% improvement of output pressure in comparison to the uniform CMUT cell biased at 170 V voltage. The fractional bandwidths of the embossed and uniform CMUT cells were 52.5% and 41.8%, respectively. It substantiated that the embossed pattern should be placed at the vibrating center of the membrane for achieving a higher output pressure. The experimental characterization indicated that the embossed CMUT cell has better operational performance than the uniform CMUT cell in collapse region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discrimination of Red Wines with a Gas-Sensor Array Based on a Surface-Acoustic-Wave Technique
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110725 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
We applied a thermal-desorption gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometer (TD-GC–MS) system to identify the marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the aroma of red wine. After obtaining the marker VOC, we utilized surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to develop a highly sensitive sensing system as ‘electronic nose’ [...] Read more.
We applied a thermal-desorption gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometer (TD-GC–MS) system to identify the marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the aroma of red wine. After obtaining the marker VOC, we utilized surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to develop a highly sensitive sensing system as ‘electronic nose’ to detect these marker VOC. The SAW chips were fabricated on a LiNbO3 substrate with a lithographic process. We coated sensing polymers on the sensing area to adsorb the marker VOC in a sample gas. The adsorption of the marker VOC altered the velocity of the SAW according to a mass-loading effect, causing a frequency decrease. This experiment was conducted with wines of three grape varieties—cabernet sauvignon, merlot and black queen. According to the results of TD-GC–MS, the King brand of red wine is likely to have unique VOC, which are 2-pentanone, dimethyl disulfide, 2-methylpropyl acetate and 2-pentanol; Blue Nun-1 probably has a special VOC such as 2,3-butanedione. We hence used a SAW sensor array to detect the aroma of red wines and to distinguish their components by their frequency shift. The results show that the use of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as a detecting material can distinguish Blue Nun-2 from the others and the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can distinguish King from the others. We conducted random tests to prove the accuracy and the reliability of our SAW sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Wearable Headset with Steady State Visually Evoked Potential-Based Brain Computer Interface
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100681 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a system that allows people to communicate directly with external machines via recognizing brain activities without manual operation. However, for most current BCI systems, conventional electroencephalography (EEG) machines and computers are usually required to acquire EEG signal and translate [...] Read more.
Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a system that allows people to communicate directly with external machines via recognizing brain activities without manual operation. However, for most current BCI systems, conventional electroencephalography (EEG) machines and computers are usually required to acquire EEG signal and translate them into control commands, respectively. The sizes of the above machines are usually large, and this increases the limitation for daily applications. Moreover, conventional EEG electrodes also require conductive gels to improve the EEG signal quality. This causes discomfort and inconvenience of use, while the conductive gels may also encounter the problem of drying out during prolonged measurements. In order to improve the above issues, a wearable headset with steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI is proposed in this study. Active dry electrodes were designed and implemented to acquire a good EEG signal quality without conductive gels from the hairy site. The SSVEP BCI algorithm was also implemented into the designed field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based BCI module to translate SSVEP signals into control commands in real time. Moreover, a commercial tablet was used as the visual stimulus device to provide graphic control icons. The whole system was designed as a wearable device to improve convenience of use in daily life, and it could acquire and translate EEG signal directly in the front-end headset. Finally, the performance of the proposed system was validated, and the results showed that it had excellent performance (information transfer rate = 36.08 bits/min). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Review on Microdevices for Isolating Circulating Tumor Cells
Micromachines 2020, 11(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11050531 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Cancer metastasis is the primary cause of high mortality of cancer patients. Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream is a very important indicator to estimate the therapeutic outcome in various metastatic cancers. The aim of this article is to review [...] Read more.
Cancer metastasis is the primary cause of high mortality of cancer patients. Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream is a very important indicator to estimate the therapeutic outcome in various metastatic cancers. The aim of this article is to review recent developments on the CTC isolation technologies in microdevices. Based on the categories of biochemical and biophysical isolation approaches, a literature review and in-depth discussion will be included to provide an overview of this challenging topic. The current excellent developments suggest promising CTC isolation methods in order to establish a precise indicator of the therapeutic outcome of cancer patients. Full article
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