Solidification and Casting of Engineering Metals: Modeling and Simulation

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 13582

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: modeling and simulation of materials processing; metal solidification and casting; new casting materials and processes; directional solidification of ni-based superalloy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solidification is a fundamental aspect of casting and welding processes, even the emerging metal additive manufacturing processes. The ubiquitous as-cast dendritic and eutectic microstructures, together with their defects, directly determine the properties of as-solidified materials and inevitably influence their behavior during subsequent forming processes. The as-cast structure and the resulting mechanical properties of the casting can be controlled through the solidification process. Knowledge of how to control the solidification process is, therefore, essential in order to ensure the quality of finished products; hence, there has been perpetual and intensive research interest in these matters. Over the last few decades, physical and numerical modeling has proven to play an important role in our understanding of some of the phenomena which occur in the harsh, high-temperature environment associated with solidification. Modeling of the phenomena and/or processes involved in solidification has resulted in a remarkable increase in knowledge and is thus indispensable if existing process limits are to be overcome. However, there are still many issues that have not yet been addressed, such as the clear quantitative relationship among the process, microstructure, defects and mechanical properties. With the ever-increasing economic and environmental demands on the production, and the simultaneously decreasing costs of computational resources, the role of numerical modeling appears more important than ever.

The upcoming Special Issue of Materials aims to present new developments in the modeling and simulation of metal solidification. We invite you to submit research papers and reviews related to the latest achievements and developments in the multiscale modeling of metal solidification. All comments and suggestions regarding the Special Issue are welcome.

The scope of the Special Issue includes, but is not limited to, the following technical topics:

  • Numerical techniques for solidification modeling (FEM, FVM, CA, PF, LB, etc.)
  • Through-process modelling
  • Solidification processing of metallic alloys (steel, cast iron, Al-, Cu- and other nonferrous alloys) and composites
  • Shape casting (sand casting, die casting, investment casting, etc.), continuous casting, welding, metal additive manufacturing and other solidification-related processes
  • Heat transfer, fluid flow or momentum transfer, mass transfer
  • Thermodynamics of metal solidification
  • Nucleation, grain growth
  • Microstructure evolution, columnar-to-equiaxed transition and globular-to-dendritic transition
  • Formation of eutectics, peritectics, monotectics and intermetallics
  • Micro- and macrosegregation
  • High-temperature/mushy zone properties
  • Thermal stress and deformation, hot tearing
  • Processing/structure/property relations
  • Defect formation and prediction (shrinkage, porosity, etc.)
  • Process design and optimization

Prof. Dr. Qingyan Xu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • modeling and simulation
  • casting
  • welding
  • solidification
  • metal and alloy

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6327 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field in an Ultrahigh-Speed Continuous Casting Billet Mold
by Dejin Qiu, Zhaohui Zhang, Xintao Li, Ming Lv, Xiaoyu Mi and Xiaofeng Xi
Metals 2023, 13(5), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050964 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Ultrahigh-speed continuous casting is a critical element in achieving high-efficiency continuous casting. In the present work, a three-dimensional model of a 160 mm × 160 mm billet ultrahigh-speed continuous casting mold was developed for use in studying the influences of different casting parameters [...] Read more.
Ultrahigh-speed continuous casting is a critical element in achieving high-efficiency continuous casting. In the present work, a three-dimensional model of a 160 mm × 160 mm billet ultrahigh-speed continuous casting mold was developed for use in studying the influences of different casting parameters on molten steel flow. The results showed that the flow pattern in the mold was not associated with its casting speeds, submerged entry nozzle (SEN) immersion depths, or inner diameters. Variation in casting speeds significantly affected the liquid level of the steel–slag interface. Its liquid level fluctuation was reasonable at an SEN immersion depth of 80 mm. Its impact depth reached the shallowest point, which was conducive to upward movement within high-velocity and high-temperature regions, and accelerated the floating of non-metallic inclusions. Expanding the inner diameter of the SEN could effectively weaken the initial kinetic energy of the jet. However, it may cause a deeper impact depth and a degree of upward movement in the raceway, which exhibited the shallowest impact depth in the jet and the most reasonable behavior of molten steel at a liquid level for which the inner diameter of the SEN was 40 mm. Full article
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13 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Simulation of Solidification of Ti-Containing Steels with Consideration for Possibility of Peritectic Transformation and Second Phase Precipitation
by Igor Gorbachev and Vladimir Popov
Metals 2023, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010041 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 851
Abstract
An algorithm is proposed for predicting the phase composition of titanium-containing steels after solidification. The approach is based on thermodynamic calculations and provides for crystallization through the formation of ferrite and austenite, as well as a peritectic reaction. The algorithm takes into account [...] Read more.
An algorithm is proposed for predicting the phase composition of titanium-containing steels after solidification. The approach is based on thermodynamic calculations and provides for crystallization through the formation of ferrite and austenite, as well as a peritectic reaction. The algorithm takes into account the possibility of precipitation of TiN, TiS, MnS and TiC0.5S0.5 from the liquid phase upon crystallization. Two possible behaviors of ferrite upon crystallization are considered: frozen and fast diffusion of elements in the metal sublattice of this phase. Calculations illustrating the operation of the proposed algorithm have been performed. Full article
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11 pages, 2279 KiB  
Article
Physical Metallurgical Bonding Layer Formed between Fe80Si9B11 Metallic Glass and Crystalline Aluminum in Rolled Composite Plate by High-Pressure Torsion at Room Temperature
by Shengfeng Shan, Xiaopeng Zhang, Haibo Guo and Yuanzhi Jia
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111929 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Metallic glasses (MGs) have excellent properties, such as high strength and low elastic modulus, can be used as reinforcement in metal matrix composites. In this paper, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with Fe80Si9B11 MG strips with different weight contents [...] Read more.
Metallic glasses (MGs) have excellent properties, such as high strength and low elastic modulus, can be used as reinforcement in metal matrix composites. In this paper, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with Fe80Si9B11 MG strips with different weight contents (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) were produced by roll-bonding at an initial temperature of 450 °C and 80% deformation. Tensile mechanical tests showed that the tensile strength of the composite sheets containing 10% MG strips showed the highest tensile strength of 166 MPa. Further studies on the sandwich structured samples were conducted using high-pressure torsion (HPT) technology with various pressures of 0.55 GPa, 1.10 GPa, 1.65 GPa, and 2.20 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), TriboIndenter nanomechanical testing, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the microstructures, mechanical properties and the bonding interface of the material. The results show that the hardness near the interface presented a transition area. High-resolution TEM observation showed that physical metallurgical bonding can be achieved between MG and aluminum alloy. A preliminary fitting of metallurgical bonding conditions was carried out according to the experimental parameters of HPT and the interface bonding condition in this study. Full article
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14 pages, 7789 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation Investigations on Microstructure Evolution during Additive Manufacturing of AlSi10Mg Alloy
by Xuewei Yan, Xuemei Yang, Guoqiang Tian, Dejian Sun, Shilong Liu, Zhihui Xiong, Zhenhua Wen and Qingyan Xu
Metals 2022, 12(10), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101711 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Microstructure has significant effects on the mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloy. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of microstructure evolution, such as dendrite and Al-Si eutectic, is of great significance to obtain the desirable microstructure and manage the performance of AlSi10Mg components. In the current [...] Read more.
Microstructure has significant effects on the mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloy. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of microstructure evolution, such as dendrite and Al-Si eutectic, is of great significance to obtain the desirable microstructure and manage the performance of AlSi10Mg components. In the current work, an integrated dendrite and eutectic evolution model based on the cellular automaton–finite difference (CA-FD) method, taking account of solute distribution, growth kinetics, and nucleation mechanism, was established. Microstructures of the as-built selective laser melted (SLMed) samples were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques, and the experimental results showed that the microstructure consisted of Al grains and Al-Si eutectic networks in the individual melt pool. Dendrite growth, solute redistribution in ternary alloy and dendritic morphologies with different cooling rates were numerically investigated. In addition, the proposed model was also applied to predict the Al-Si eutectic evolution, and eutectic morphologies under eutectic undercooling in a range of 5 K to 20 K were also simulated. The simulated results indicated that dendrites were refined with the increasing of the cooling rates, and Al-Si eutectic morphology was sensitive to eutectic undercooling such that higher eutectic undercooling refined the eutectic microstructures. Model validations were performed, and the experimental results agreed well with the simulation results, indicating that the proposed model can successfully reproduce both dendrite and eutectic microstructures. Full article
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14 pages, 62073 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hot Oscillatory Pressing Temperature on Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Superalloy
by Guizhong Li, Dejian Sun, Jiachen Kang, Yang Gao, Xuewei Yan, Qiancheng Gao and Ka Gao
Metals 2022, 12(10), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12101652 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
The effect of the hot oscillatory pressing (HOPing) temperature on the microstructure and tensile behavior of the powder metallurgy superalloys was investigated and compared with those of the hot pressed (HPed) sample. The results show that as the HOPing temperature rises, the pores [...] Read more.
The effect of the hot oscillatory pressing (HOPing) temperature on the microstructure and tensile behavior of the powder metallurgy superalloys was investigated and compared with those of the hot pressed (HPed) sample. The results show that as the HOPing temperature rises, the pores and residual dendrites disappear, the grain size becomes coarser and more uniform, the prior particle boundaries (PPBs) scale decreases; the yield strength decreases gradually; the ultimate tensile strength and elongation increase first and then decrease; the tensile property stability gradually increases. The highest ultimate tensile strength and elongation of 1403 MPa and 35%, respectively, are reached when the HOPing temperature is 1160 °C. The fracture mode of the sample hot oscillatory pressed (HOPed) at 1160 °C is a transgranular and intergranular mixed fracture. Compared with the HPed sample, room temperature tensile properties of the HOPed sample improve remarkably due to the reduced size and density of PPBs precipitates. Full article
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12 pages, 8688 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of GH3536 Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
by Shuai Huang, Bingqing Chen, Wei Liu, Biao Zhou, Xuejun Zhang, Qi Zeng and Shaoqing Guo
Metals 2022, 12(7), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12071184 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM) forming technology to prepare nickel-based superalloy parts can significantly save costs and solve bottleneck problems. The extremely high-temperature gradient and large residual stress during SLM lead to structural defects and compositional segregation. The parts formed by SLM urgently need [...] Read more.
Selective laser melting (SLM) forming technology to prepare nickel-based superalloy parts can significantly save costs and solve bottleneck problems. The extremely high-temperature gradient and large residual stress during SLM lead to structural defects and compositional segregation. The parts formed by SLM urgently need heat treatment to control the microstructure composition and improve mechanical properties. Results showed that the heat treatment did not significantly change the microcracks and pores in the SLM sample, but the carbides in the grain boundary gradually changed from a granular distribution to a continuous strip distribution. After heat treatment, the elongation increased significantly, but the yield strength decreased. The tensile fracture of the SLM samples changed from a transgranular fracture to a ductile fracture, and obvious plastic deformation occurred, confirming that heat treatment can improve the benefits of the SLM sample. Full article
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16 pages, 5129 KiB  
Article
Macro-Micro-Coupling Simulation and Space Experiment Study on Zone Melting Process of Bismuth Telluride-Based Crystal Materials
by Huxiang Xia, Xiaoya Li and Qingyan Xu
Metals 2022, 12(5), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12050886 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Zone melting is one of the main techniques for preparing bismuth telluride-based crystal thermoelectric materials. In this research, a macro-micro-coupled simulation model was established to analyze the distribution of temperature and heat flow during the zone melting process. The simulation results show the [...] Read more.
Zone melting is one of the main techniques for preparing bismuth telluride-based crystal thermoelectric materials. In this research, a macro-micro-coupled simulation model was established to analyze the distribution of temperature and heat flow during the zone melting process. The simulation results show the melting temperature tends to affect the length of the melting zone, while the moving velocity of the melting furnace tends to affect the curvature of the melting and solidification interface. There are two small plateaus observed in the temperature curve of the central axis of bismuth telluride ingot when the moving velocity of the heat source is higher than 20 mm/h. As the moving velocity of the heat source increases, the platform effect is becoming more obvious. Based on the simulation results, the zone melt experiments were carried out both under microgravity condition on the Tiangong II space laboratory and conventional gravity condition on the ground. The experimental results indicate that the bismuth telluride-based crystal prepared in microgravity tends to possess more uniform composition. This uniform composition will lead to more uniform thermoelectric performance for telluride-based crystals. In the space condition, the influence of surface tension is much higher than that of gravity. The bismuth telluride ingot is very vulnerable to the influence of surface tension on the surface morphology during the solidification process. If the solidification process is not well controlled, it will be easier to produce uneven surface morphology. Full article
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13 pages, 8890 KiB  
Article
The Response Mechanism of Crystal Orientation to Grain Boundary Dislocation under Uniaxial Strain: A Phase-Field-Crystal Study
by Xiaona Wang, Haibin Zhang, Shinong Yan, Yongmei Zhang, Xiaolin Tian, Dunwei Peng and Yuhong Zhao
Metals 2022, 12(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12050712 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
An exploration of dislocation microstructure evolution with different misorientation angles was performed using phase field crystal method (PFC). The microcosmic evolution process of grain boundaries under external stress, as well as the corresponding energy curve and stress–strain curve, are analyzed. The relationship between [...] Read more.
An exploration of dislocation microstructure evolution with different misorientation angles was performed using phase field crystal method (PFC). The microcosmic evolution process of grain boundaries under external stress, as well as the corresponding energy curve and stress–strain curve, are analyzed. The relationship between the misorientation angle and the dislocations emission frequency is discussed. Three forms of dislocations reaction on the evolution process of 6° and 10° are analyzed in detail, which are respectively type I semi-annihilation, type II semi-annihilationand full-annihilation. Among them, the nature of type I semi-annihilation is a combination of dislocation and a single edge dislocation reaction with a single edge dislocation left. The essence of type II semi-annihilation is a pair of dislocation and the other pair of dislocation reaction leaving two edge dislocations. The essence of full-annihilation is that two pairs of dislocations or single edge dislocations with opposite Burger vectors react with each other and the distortion area disappears. When the misorientation angle is 10°, the dislocation reaction and the dislocation motion ability of the system are stronger than 6°. The peak of the energy curve is related to the number of dislocation proliferations in the evolution process. An emission frequency and average density of dislocations of 10° is greater than 6°. The causes of plastic deformation are revealed to a certain extent by stress–strain curves. Full article
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13 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction under Temperature Uncertainty for Shot Sleeve of Squeeze Casting Machine
by Dongdong You, Wenbin Pang and Dongqing Cai
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071126 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
To quantify the influence of temperature uncertainty on thermal fatigue life prediction of a shot sleeve in an injection mechanism, an uncertainty analysis method based on a Kriging surrogate model and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was proposed. The training samples of the surrogate [...] Read more.
To quantify the influence of temperature uncertainty on thermal fatigue life prediction of a shot sleeve in an injection mechanism, an uncertainty analysis method based on a Kriging surrogate model and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was proposed. The training samples of the surrogate model were obtained by a finite element simulation, and the response relationships between input variables, such as pouring and preheating temperature, and target variables, such as strain and stress, were constructed by the Kriging surrogate model. The input variables were sampled by the MCS, and the predicted stress and strain parameters were combined with the modified universal slope equation to predict the thermal fatigue life of the shot sleeve. The statistical characteristics of the predicted life were obtained. The comparative analysis results indicate that the predicted life considering temperature uncertainty is more accurate than the deterministically predicted value. Full article
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