The State of the Art in Functionally Graded Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metallic Functional Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 5738

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, San Jose State University, 1 Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95112, USA
Interests: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; functionally graded materials; mechanical characterization; computer-aided design; tool path planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are a special type of composites which have been studied since the 1980s. In addition to sharing significant advantages of traditional composite materials, they also possess some unique advantages, including spatial distribution of properties, reduced stress intensity factors, improved residual stresses, trimmed thermo-mechanical properties, and higher fracture toughness. Studies centered on this type of material cover a very broad spectrum, from purely theoretical studies of vibrational behavior of micro-beams using modified couple stress theory to purely experimental investigations of the composition profile of additively manufactured metallic parts.

In spite of more than four decades of extensive research in this field, it is still a very active area and more studies are conducted each year, which is partly due to the large number of challenges and opportunities still existing in the field. Accordingly, we decided to devote an entire issue to this subject and are pleased to invite you to submit your contributions. This Special Issue aims to publish original research articles and review papers about all aspects of functionally graded materials. Theoretical and/or experimental research efforts in design, modeling, analysis, fabrication, and characterization of FGMs are welcome. Research areas may include, but are not limited to homogenization techniques, representation methods, mechanical response to static and/or dynamic loads, optimization of material composition distribution, fracture and crack propagation, novel and traditional fabrication processes, physical testing methods, and thermal barrier coatings. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Amir Armani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Material representation
  • Material distribution optimization
  • Homogenization techniques
  • Coatings
  • Mechanical response
  • Fracture mechanics
  • Processing techniques
  • Mechanical characterization

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Linear Thermal Expansion and Specific Heat Capacity of Cu-Fe System Laser-Deposited Materials
by Konstantin I. Makarenko, Oleg N. Dubinin and Igor V. Shishkovsky
Metals 2023, 13(3), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030451 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The coefficient of linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity of laser-deposited Cu-Fe alloys fabricated from tin, aluminum, chromium bronze (89–99 wt.% Cu), and SS 316L were studied. The investigated alloys had a 1:1 and a 3:1 bronze–steel ratio. The Al–bronze-based alloy [...] Read more.
The coefficient of linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity of laser-deposited Cu-Fe alloys fabricated from tin, aluminum, chromium bronze (89–99 wt.% Cu), and SS 316L were studied. The investigated alloys had a 1:1 and a 3:1 bronze–steel ratio. The Al–bronze-based alloy showed the lowest value of linear thermal expansion coefficient: (1.212 ± 0.095)∙10−5 K−1. Contrarily, this value was the highest {[(1.878–1.959) ± 0.095]∙10−5 K−1} in the case of functionally graded parts created from alternating layers of bronze and steel. Differential scanning calorimetry provided experimental results about the specific heat capacity of the materials. In the case of Al–bronze-based specimens, it demonstrated a decrease in the specific heat capacity until ~260 °C and its further increase during a heating cycle. Exothermic peaks related to polymorphic transformations were observed in the Al–bronze-based specimens. Cooling cycles showed monotonous behavior for specific heat capacities. It had exothermic peaks in the case of Cr–bronze-based alloys. A Lennard-Jones potential equation was used for testing the relation between heat capacity and thermal expansion. A three-way interaction regression model validated the results and provided the relative thermal expansion of commercially pure DED-fabricated SS 316L. Its specific heat capacity was also studied experimentally and was 15–20% higher in comparison to the traditional method of production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State of the Art in Functionally Graded Materials)
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Review

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37 pages, 12743 KiB  
Review
Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Parts
by Priyambada Nayak and Amir Armani
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081335 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
Several additive manufacturing processes are capable of fabricating three-dimensional parts with complex distribution of material composition to achieve desired local properties and functions. This unique advantage could be exploited by developing and implementing methodologies capable of optimizing the distribution of material composition for [...] Read more.
Several additive manufacturing processes are capable of fabricating three-dimensional parts with complex distribution of material composition to achieve desired local properties and functions. This unique advantage could be exploited by developing and implementing methodologies capable of optimizing the distribution of material composition for one-, two-, and three-dimensional parts. This paper is the first effort to review the research works on developing these methods. The underlying components (i.e., building blocks) in all of these methods include the homogenization approach, material representation technique, finite element analysis approach, and the choice of optimization algorithm. The overall performance of each method mainly depends on these components and how they work together. For instance, if a simple one-dimensional analytical equation is used to represent the material composition distribution, the finite element analysis and optimization would be straightforward, but it does not have the versatility of a method which uses an advanced representation technique. In this paper, evolution of these methods is followed; noteworthy homogenization approaches, representation techniques, finite element analysis approaches, and optimization algorithms used/developed in these studies are described; and most powerful design methods are identified, explained, and compared against each other. Also, manufacturing techniques, capable of producing functionally graded materials with complex material distribution, are reviewed; and future research directions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State of the Art in Functionally Graded Materials)
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