Advances in Research on the Tribological Behavior of Steels in Lubricated and Unlubricated Contacts

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Failure Analysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 6270

Special Issue Editor

Head of the Materials and Tribology Research Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technological Institute of Mexico (TecNM) in Celaya, Ave. Tecnológico y A.G. Cubas S/N, C.P. 38010, Celaya, Guanajuato, México
Interests: materials characterization; wear and friction; lubrication; bio-lubricants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Steel plays a key role in contemporary societies, and it is very difficult to imagine life today without this material. Its excellent resistance, plasticity, and versatility make it a unique material for many applications such as in railways, construction, household appliances, machinery, and industrial tools, to name a few.

Extending the useful life of mechanical components by controlling wear has become a very important tool for reducing production costs in industries. In the same way, the reduction in friction generated in any machinery means significant savings in energy consumption. Following such needs, research in tribology has been directed toward different areas of action, focusing on multidisciplinary disciplines such as coatings and surface treatments, wear analysis, and the design of new highly wear-resistant materials. The formulation and evaluation of new lubricants to reduce the friction and wear of steel contacts continue to increase since this represents a more environmentally friendly direction.

With this Special Issue, we seek to provide a series of articles on a wide variety of aspects related to the tribology of steels. The purpose is to exhibit recent advances in the characterization and evaluation of new technologies or techniques for the improvement of friction and wear behavior of steel materials. It is hoped that this open access Special Issue will provide a place for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with the current state-of-the-art of tribological behavior of steels. Original research articles and short communications on the characterization and evaluation of new technologies applied to steels for the enhancement of their tribological performance are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Karla Judith Moreno
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Steel
  • Friction
  • Wear resistance
  • Dry contacts
  • Lubrication
  • Lubricating regimes
  • Biolubricants
  • Coatings
  • Surface treatments

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 18397 KiB  
Article
Article: Oxy-Nitriding AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Surface Saturation to Increase Wear Resistance
Metals 2023, 13(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020309 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
AISI 304 SS has good corrosion resistance in a variety of environments but does not have good resistance to wear. Aggressive marine environments require materials that can withstand both the biocorrosion and the wear associated with the impact of waves, ocean currents and [...] Read more.
AISI 304 SS has good corrosion resistance in a variety of environments but does not have good resistance to wear. Aggressive marine environments require materials that can withstand both the biocorrosion and the wear associated with the impact of waves, ocean currents and suspended particles. Oxy-nitriding of stainless steels can be used to increase their hardness and wear resistance. The conventional oxy-nitriding process is lengthy, and the temperature involved can affect the corrosion resistance of the material. To mitigate these problems, it was decided to study an oxy-nitriding process in plasma electrolytic conditions, using aqueous solutions of 20, 30 and 40 wt% urea. The results showed that all the concentrations evaluated gave lower levels of wear than untreated stainless steel. However, considering the amount of urea used and the environmental emissions from the waste generated, a concentration of 20% by weight of urea in the electrolyte is considered sufficient to increase up to three times the wear resistance of stainless steel. XRD, XPS and microscopy analyses showed that, in the main, the outermost layer of the steel surface treated by electrolytic plasma has a morphology of small craters of chromium and iron oxy-nitrides. A nitrogen diffusion layer was also seen below the oxy-nitrided layer. Full article
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18 pages, 8752 KiB  
Article
Tribological Performance of 100Cr6/8620 Steel Bearing System under Green Oil Lubrication
Metals 2022, 12(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12020362 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
There is a great need to perform all processes and services more efficiently to reduce energy consumption and material waste. Bearing systems are present in all machines and motors, playing an important role in the reduction of energy consumption. 100Cr6 (ISO 683-17:2014) and [...] Read more.
There is a great need to perform all processes and services more efficiently to reduce energy consumption and material waste. Bearing systems are present in all machines and motors, playing an important role in the reduction of energy consumption. 100Cr6 (ISO 683-17:2014) and AISI 8620 are two typical steels employed in most bearing systems. However, improving the tribological performance of these steels is still required. This study reports the analysis of green lubricants based on mixtures of vegetable oils to improve the friction and wear properties of steel bearing systems. Firstly, a method is presented to identify potential mixtures based on the excess thermodynamic properties. Then, the tribological performance of the 100Cr6/8620 steel bearing system lubricated with the selected mixtures is evaluated by the ball-on-disk method. It was found that the friction and wear behavior of the 100Cr6/8620 steel bearing system can be notably improved by the utilization of oil mixtures rather than pure green oils. The kinetic friction coefficient decreased up to 10% with the ideal mixture of castor and sesame oil, while wear was reduced up to 81% with the ideal mixture of castor and canola oil. Therefore, we suggest that vegetable oil blends may be a good option for the feasible manufacture of biolubricants for bearing systems. Full article
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16 pages, 8136 KiB  
Article
On the Influence of Tribological Properties of AISI 4140 Annealed Steel against Ceramic Counterparts under Dry and Lubricated Conditions and Their Effect on Steel Microstructure
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081275 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
AISI 4140 steel is still one of the most distinguished steels employed in tribological applications because of its low cost, great mechanical properties, and appropriate wear resistance. In this contribution, the tribological performance of AISI 4140 annealed steel against engineering ceramic was analyzed [...] Read more.
AISI 4140 steel is still one of the most distinguished steels employed in tribological applications because of its low cost, great mechanical properties, and appropriate wear resistance. In this contribution, the tribological performance of AISI 4140 annealed steel against engineering ceramic was analyzed to promote parameters for the application of this steel, especially in systems that are subjected to contact pressures between 490–1240 MPa. Dry and lubricated pin-on-disk experiments were completed at different normal loads. The worn surfaces were analyzed by contact profilometry, optical and scanning electron microscopies, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and microhardness examinations. In dry conditions, a better friction response was found on the steel tested with ZrO2. Friction coefficient and wear rate resulted in reductions up to 60% and 99% compared with those obtained with Al2O3 and Si3N4 counterparts. A strain-hardening phenomenon due to the friction process was observed on the samples tested with ZrO2 and Si3N4, which showed grain refinement and hardness increment on worn surfaces. Therefore, those systems exhibited better wear responses. In lubricated conditions, all counterparts exhibited low friction and wear, but the performance of Al2O3 and Si3N4 was highlighted. The results demonstrate that the performance of AISI 4140 annealed steel under the tested conditions is comparable with that of the same steel with other surface treatments. Full article
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