Special Issue "Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Johannes Schenk

Ferrous Metallurgy Lehrstuhl für Eisen- und Stahlmetallurgie, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: primary metallurgy; ironmaking; steelmaking; slag

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Selected contributions of the 8th International Congress on Science and Technology in Ironmaking—8th ICSTI 2018 will be published in the Special Issue. The congress will be held form Sept. 25 to 27 2018 in Vienna and will bring together a wide range of experts, coming from plant operation and plant and equipment suppliers, as well as research institutes and universities, who share expertise in the field of ironmaking. The scope and topic of the contribution to the 8th ICSTI 2018 covers the topics cokemaking, iron ore production and handling, sintering, pelletizing, blast furnace ironmaking, direct reduction, smelting reduction, environmental control in coke and ironmaking, CO2 reduction and energy saving, recycling of in-plant residues, and automation and digitalization in coke and ironmaking, as well as modelling and simulation in coke and ironmaking.

Prof. Dr. Johannes Schenk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ironmaking
  • cokemaking
  • sintering
  • pelletizing
  • blast furnace
  • direct reduction
  • smelting reduction
  • sustainable iron production
  • automation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle An Environment-Friendly Process Featuring Calcified Roasting and Precipitation Purification to Prepare Vanadium Pentoxide from the Converter Vanadium Slag
Metals 2019, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010021
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Converter vanadium slag is a byproduct of the iron making process when the vanadium titanomagnetite is used as iron raw material. A cleaner process including calcified roasting, dilute acid leaching, precipitation purification, vanadium precipitation with ammonium salt, followed by thermal decomposition was proposed [...] Read more.
Converter vanadium slag is a byproduct of the iron making process when the vanadium titanomagnetite is used as iron raw material. A cleaner process including calcified roasting, dilute acid leaching, precipitation purification, vanadium precipitation with ammonium salt, followed by thermal decomposition was proposed to extract vanadium resource from this slag. And then vanadium pentoxide with purity over 98% was prepared, which can be used as additives for high strength low alloy steel production. A total vanadium recovery beyond 80% was achieved in this whole process. Since no sodium and potassium salt was introduced, wastewater generated was closed-circulating after removing the enriched impurities of P, Si, Ti and Cr with adding powder CaO. The content of V2O5 in residues after vanadium extraction was lower than 1.2 wt.%, while other valuable metals like Fe, Mn, Cr and Ti were concentrated. With no alkaline metal salts added in this process, the metal resources of Fe, Mn, Cr and Ti in the residues were more feasible to be recovered with pyrometallurgy processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Petrological Study of Ferrous Burden-Crucible Interaction in Softening & Melting Experiments: Implications for the Relevance of Pressure Drop Measurements
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121082
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Numerous tests are used worldwide to investigate the advanced high temperature reduction, softening, and melting (S&M) of blast furnace ferrous burden material. Commonly, the curve of pressure drop (dP) against temperature, measured over the experimental charge, is taken as directly indicative of the [...] Read more.
Numerous tests are used worldwide to investigate the advanced high temperature reduction, softening, and melting (S&M) of blast furnace ferrous burden material. Commonly, the curve of pressure drop (dP) against temperature, measured over the experimental charge, is taken as directly indicative of the evolution of ferrous layer permeability. Previous authors have expressed concerns about the reproducibility and practical relevance of dP measurements due to narrow crucible diameter and wall effects. Petrological study of samples from interrupted Advanced Softening and Melting (ASAM) experiments, performed with ferrous burdens comprising a mixture of pellets (C/S 0.1–0.7) and highly basic sinter (C/S 2.4–3.5), sheds light on the nature and controlling mechanisms of systematic artefacts influencing the measurement of dP. The observations imply that the dP-T curves in ASAM, and likely other similar S&M, tests most immediately reflect the varying ease of gas flow in a sidewall bypass around the qualitatively impermeable ferrous burden layer, rather than through it. This is controlled by the formation of diverse oxide(-slag)-metal segregations at the exterior of the ferrous burden layer. The potential correlation of parameters derived from dP measurements with input burden characteristics is not in itself sufficient evidence that the measurements are indicative of the ferrous layer permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle The Potential of Recycling the High-Zinc Fraction of Upgraded BF Sludge to the Desulfurization Plant and Basic Oxygen Furnace
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121057
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
In ore-based steelmaking, blast furnace (BF) dust is generally recycled to the BF via the sinter or cold-bonded briquettes and injection. In order to recycle the BF sludge to the BF, the sludge has to be upgraded, removing zinc. The literature reports cases [...] Read more.
In ore-based steelmaking, blast furnace (BF) dust is generally recycled to the BF via the sinter or cold-bonded briquettes and injection. In order to recycle the BF sludge to the BF, the sludge has to be upgraded, removing zinc. The literature reports cases of recycling the low-zinc fraction of upgraded BF sludge to the BF. However, research towards recycling of the high-zinc fraction of BF sludge within the ore-based steel plant is limited. In the present paper, the high-zinc fraction of tornado-treated BF sludge was incorporated in self-reducing cold-bonded briquettes and pellets. Each type of agglomerate was individually subjected to technical-scale smelting reduction experiments aiming to study the feasibility of recycling in-plant residues to the hot metal (HM) desulfurization (deS) plant. The endothermic reactions within the briquettes decreased the heating and reduction rate leaving the briquettes unreduced and unmelted. The pellets were completely reduced within eight minutes of contact with HM but still showed melt-in problems. Cold-bonded briquettes, without BF sludge, were charged in industrial-scale trials to study the recycling potential to the HM deS plant and basic oxygen furnace (BOF). The trials illustrated a potential for the complete recycling of the high-zinc fraction of BF sludge. However, further studies were identified to be required to verify these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle The Macroscopic Flow direction and Microscopic Distribution of Mg in Sintered Products and Its Influence
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121008
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Magnesium flux is an indispensable part of sintering materials. Its distribution and reaction behavior have an important influence on the quality of the sinter. Studying the macroscopic flow direction and microscopic distribution of MgO in sintered products is important for guiding the matching [...] Read more.
Magnesium flux is an indispensable part of sintering materials. Its distribution and reaction behavior have an important influence on the quality of the sinter. Studying the macroscopic flow direction and microscopic distribution of MgO in sintered products is important for guiding the matching of ore for sintering and adjusting sintering technical parameters. The macroscopic flow direction situation of MgO in all sintered products was studied using X-Ray diffractometer and X-Ray fluorescence analyzer. In addition, the microscopic distribution characteristics of Mg element in the main sintered products were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The results of this research are as follows. The Mg contents of sintered products are in the following increasing order: sinter ore, sinter internal return ore, and blast furnace return ore. The Mg content of the 1 to 2 mm grain size is the highest in the sinter internal return ore and blast furnace return ore, which is related to the granular distribution of magnesium flux. Moreover, the Mg content of sintered minerals are in the following decreasing order: magnetite; silico-ferrites of calcium and aluminium (SFCA); and silicate and hematite, and the Mg dissolving in the SFCA has a tendency to make the SFCA morphology coarse. The diffusion range of Mg in a large dolomite particle is much narrower, and it mainly stays at the position where the dolomite is located. In the actual sintering process, Mg increases the viscosity of the sintering liquid phase and prevents the oxidation of magnetite, which is not conducive to the improvement of the strength of the sinter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization of Cost Saving and Emission Reduction in Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process
Metals 2018, 8(12), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8120979
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Due to the increasing environmental pressures, one of the most direct and effective way to achieve emission reduction is to reduce the CO2 emissions of the blast furnace process in the iron and steel industry. Based on the substance conservation and energy [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing environmental pressures, one of the most direct and effective way to achieve emission reduction is to reduce the CO2 emissions of the blast furnace process in the iron and steel industry. Based on the substance conservation and energy conservation of ironmaking process and the engineering method, the carbon loss model was firstly established to calculate the amount of solution loss. Based on this model, the blast furnace emission reduction optimization mathematical model with the cost and CO2 emissions as objective functions was then established using the multiple-objective optimization method. The optimized results were obtained by using the GRG (Generalized Reduced Gradient) nonlinear solving method. The optimization model was applied to the B# blast furnace of BayiSteel in China. The optimization model was verified by comparing the optimized results with the actual production data. The optimization model was then applied to analyze the effects of coke ratio, coal rate, blast temperature and other factors on the cost, CO2 emission and solution loss, and some measures to save cost, reduce emissions and reduce solution loss have been proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Calculation Model for Activity of FeO in Quaternary Slag System SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO
Metals 2018, 8(9), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090714
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
According to the coexistence theory of slag structure, a calculation model for the activity of FeO in the quaternary system SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO of depleted copper slag was established. The model was used to calculate and analyze the effects [...] Read more.
According to the coexistence theory of slag structure, a calculation model for the activity of FeO in the quaternary system SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO of depleted copper slag was established. The model was used to calculate and analyze the effects of temperature (T), basicity (B), and Al2O3 content on the activity of FeO (NFeO). The results show that temperature has little impact on NFeO. With increased basicity, NFeO first increased slightly, then increased sharply, and finally decreased. It is easier for CaO to combine with SiO2 than FeO to form calcium silicate, which replaces FeO in 2FeO·SiO2 and increases NFeO. However, when basicity is higher than 2.0, CaO not only reacts with SiO2, but also combines with FeO to form calcium ferrate compounds to decrease NFeO. In addition, the activity of FeO decreases with increased Al2O3 content because of the reaction between CaO and Al2O3. The results can be used as a theoretical basis to guide the carbothermal reduction process of copper slag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 8th ICSTI 2018)
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