Design, Phase Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloy

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 3442

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Aerospace Advanced Materials and Performance of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: phase transformation and mechanical behavior of titanium alloys; design and development of high-performance Mg- and Al-based alloys; processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of light metallic materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Titanium alloys are promising structural and functional materials in aerospace and civil applications owing to their highly tailorable mechanical properties associated with chemical compositions and diverse microstructures. In recent years, increasing interests are devoted to the design and fabrication of high-performance Ti alloys with high strength, high ductility, low Young’s modulus, shape memory, and superelasticity. As Ti alloys act as both low-weight metallic material and smart material with shape memory properties and low elastic modulus, the research and development of both available and new Ti alloys are vital for the Ti society. This Special Issue explores the design, phase transformation, microstructure evolution, deformation behavior, and mechanical properties of Ti alloys in order to shed light on the titanium research.

Articles concerning the design, processing, and mechanical properties of Ti alloys, as well as their deformation mechanisms, are welcome. This Special Issue will cover—but is not limited to—the following fundamental and applied research topics:

  • alloy design;
  • thermal-mechanical processing;
  • post-heat treatment;
  • precipitation;
  • microstructure evolution;
  • deformation behavior;
  • deformation mechanism;
  • mechanical properties;
  • shape memory;
  • superelasticity;
  • simulation;
  • additive manufacturing;
  • metastable phases;
  • martensitic transformation;
  • biomedical applications;
  • advanced characterization.

Dr. Wenlong Xiao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alloy design
  • thermal-mechanical processing
  • post-heat treatment
  • precipitation
  • microstructure evolution
  • deformation behavior
  • deformation mechanism
  • mechanical properties
  • shape memory
  • superelasticity
  • simulation
  • additive manufacturing
  • metastable phases
  • martensitic transformation
  • biomedical applications
  • advanced characterization

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 7268 KiB  
Article
Thermomechanical Pathways for Accurate Microstructural Control of Ti–7Ag Alloy: Towards a New Generation of Antibacterial Materials for Medical Applications
by Julie Deya, Stéphanie Delannoy, Philippe Vermaut and Frédéric Prima
Metals 2024, 14(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050577 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
This study delved into exploring microstructural states in a Ti–7Ag alloy to achieve targeted functional and structural properties. Specifically, the focus was on attaining a homogeneously precipitated state and a solid solution, known for their potential to combine functional traits like corrosion resistance [...] Read more.
This study delved into exploring microstructural states in a Ti–7Ag alloy to achieve targeted functional and structural properties. Specifically, the focus was on attaining a homogeneously precipitated state and a solid solution, known for their potential to combine functional traits like corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity with structural properties such as mechanical strength. However, obtaining these optimized microstructures presents challenges due to kinetic considerations. A key finding of this study was the crucial role of a pre-deformation stage, prior to heat treatment, to create an even distribution of fine Ti2Ag precipitates. Moreover, we demonstrated that starting from this precipitated state, a controlled dissolution step could yield a single-phase solid solution with similar grain size. Therefore, a tailored set of thermomechanical treatments was developed to achieve both microstructures, and these metallurgical states were fully characterized combining SEM (BSE imaging and EDS analysis), TEM, and XRD. Associated mechanical properties were also assessed by tensile testing. In addition, the process was proven to be robust enough to overcome potential industrial problems, such as slow cooling rates when water-quenching large ingots. Considering the limited existing documentation on microstructural features in Ti–Ag alloys, this work on this model alloy significantly advanced our current understanding of the broader Ti–Ag alloy system by providing new data and showcasing a tailored approach involving thermomechanical treatments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5395 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Biocompatible Titanium Alloy Ti-39Nb-7Zr after Rotary Forging
by Anatoly Illarionov, Galymzhan Mukanov, Stepan Stepanov, Viktor Kuznetsov, Roman Karelin, Vladimir Andreev, Vladimir Yusupov and Andrei Korelin
Metals 2024, 14(5), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050497 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
The evolution of microstructure, phase composition and physico-mechanical properties of the biocompatible Ti-39Nb-7Zr alloy (wt.%) after severe plastic deformation by rotary forging (RF) was studied using various methods including light optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, microindentation, tensile testing and [...] Read more.
The evolution of microstructure, phase composition and physico-mechanical properties of the biocompatible Ti-39Nb-7Zr alloy (wt.%) after severe plastic deformation by rotary forging (RF) was studied using various methods including light optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, microindentation, tensile testing and investigation of thermophysical properties during continuous heating. The hot-rolled Ti-39Nb-7Zr with initial single β-phase structure is subjected to multi-pass RF at 450 °C with an accumulated degree of true deformation of 1.2, resulting in the formation of a fibrous β-grain structure with imperfect 500 nm subgrains characterized by an increased dislocation density. Additionally, nano-sized α-precipitates formed in the body and along the β-grain boundaries. These structural changes resulted in an increase in microhardness from 215 HV to 280 HV and contact modulus of elasticity from 70 GPa to 76 GPa. The combination of strength and ductility of Ti-39Nb-7Zr after RF approaches that of the widely used Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in medicine, however, Ti-39Nb-7Zr does not contain elements with limited biocompatibility and has a modulus of elasticity 1.5 times lower than Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The temperature dependences of physical properties (elastic modulus, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity) of the Ti-39Nb-7Zr alloy after RF are considered and sufficient thermal stability of the alloy up to 450 °C is demonstrated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 8387 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Crystallographic Orientation and Texture Evolution of Ti60 Alloy during Plane Strain Compression
by Yi Dai, Yunteng Xiao, Weidong Zeng, Runchen Jia and Weiju Jia
Metals 2024, 14(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14030359 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The crystallographic orientation and texture evolution mechanism of equiaxed Ti60 alloy plates were investigated in this study through plane strain compression tests. The EBSD analysis revealed that the received plate contained two characteristic textures that were perpendicular to each other, i.e., c-axis//TD (Component [...] Read more.
The crystallographic orientation and texture evolution mechanism of equiaxed Ti60 alloy plates were investigated in this study through plane strain compression tests. The EBSD analysis revealed that the received plate contained two characteristic textures that were perpendicular to each other, i.e., c-axis//TD (Component 1) and c-axis//RD (Component 2), with the latter being caused by the change in direction of the TD texture that was generated during the previous unidirectional rolling process into an RD direction in the cross-rolling process. The results demonstrated that, with increasing the deformation temperature from 930 °C to 960 °C and 990 °C, the intensity of the c-axis//TD texture (Component 1) initially rose to a peak value of 5.07, which then—subsequently—decreased significantly to 2.96 at 960 °C and 3.11 at 990 °C. Conversely, the intensity of the c-axis//RD texture (Component 2) remained relatively unchanged. These texture changes were correlated with slip system activity and the spheroidization of the primary alpha phase. For the c-axis//TD texture, the initial intensity of the texture components during compression at lower temperatures could be attributed to the incomplete dynamic spheroidization process of the α phase, which leads to the reinforcement of the c-axis//TD due to prismatic slip. As the deformation temperature increased, the dynamic spheroidization process became more prominent, thereby leading to a significant reduction in the intensity of the c-axis//TD texture. In contrast, the c-axis//RD texture exhibited difficulty in activating the prismatic slip and basal slip; in addition, it also encountered resistance to dynamic spheroidization, thus resulting in negligible changes in the texture intensity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 2362 KiB  
Review
A Review of Deformation Mechanisms, Compositional Design, and Development of Titanium Alloys with Transformation-Induced Plasticity and Twinning-Induced Plasticity Effects
by Yu Fu, Yue Gao, Wentao Jiang, Wenlong Xiao, Xinqing Zhao and Chaoli Ma
Metals 2024, 14(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010097 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Metastable β-type Ti alloys that undergo stress-induced martensitic transformation and/or deformation twinning mechanisms have the potential to simultaneously enhance strength and ductility through the transformation-induced plasticity effect (TRIP) and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect. These TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys represent a new generation of strain [...] Read more.
Metastable β-type Ti alloys that undergo stress-induced martensitic transformation and/or deformation twinning mechanisms have the potential to simultaneously enhance strength and ductility through the transformation-induced plasticity effect (TRIP) and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect. These TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys represent a new generation of strain hardenable Ti alloys, holding great promise for structural applications. Nonetheless, the relatively low yield strength is the main factor limiting the practical applications of TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys. The intricate interplay among chemical compositions, deformation mechanisms, and mechanical properties in TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys poses a challenge for the development of new TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys. This review delves into the understanding of deformation mechanisms and strain hardening behavior of TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys and summarizes the role of β phase stability, α″ martensite, α′ martensite, and ω phase on the TRIP/TWIP effects. This is followed by the introduction of compositional design strategies that empower the precise design of new TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys through multi-element alloying. Then, the recent development of TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys and the strengthening strategies to enhance their yield strength while preserving high-strain hardening capability are summarized. Finally, future prospects and suggestions for the continued design and development of high-performance TRIP/TWIP Ti alloys are highlighted. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop