Membrane Science and Technology: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Prof. Takeshi Matsuura on the Occasion of his 85th Birthday

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 26631

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Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering (SCEE), Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Interests: fuel cells; membrane technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering (SCEE), Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Interests: membrane manufacturing and technologies; fuel cells; water and wastewater treatment; water purification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering (SCEE), Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Interests: membrane technology; ceramic membrane

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Professor Matsuura was born in Shizuoka, Japan, in 1936. He received his B.Sc. (1961) and M.Sc. (1963) degrees from the Department of Applied Chemistry at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Japan. He went to Germany to pursue his doctoral studies at the Institute of Chemical Technology, Technical University of Berlin, Germany and received Doktor-Ingenieur in 1965.

After working at the Department of Synthetic Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Japan as a staff assistant and at the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, United State of America as a postdoctorate research associate, he joined the National Research Council of Canada in 1969. He came to the University of Ottawa, Canada in 1992 as a professor and the chairholder of British (Consumers) Gas/NSERC Industrial Research Chair. He is professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering and became the director of the Industrial Membrane Research Institute (IMRI) until 2002.

While Dr. Matsuura was heading IMRI, IMRI received financial supports from a number of industries and government agencies, namely Air Products, AQUASEP Purification, Inc., British Gas, Esso Petroleum Canada, Environmental Science and Technology Alliance of Canada, Fielding Chemicals, Petrosep, Ion Exchange India, Materials and Manufacturing Ontario, National Research Council of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Ontario Ministry of Education and Training (URIF Grant), Mitacs etc.

In recent years, he was appointed as the Visiting Professor in numbers of distinguished universities such as McMaster University, Canada (2001), Nihon University, Japan, (2002), National University of Singapore, Singapore (2003), Laval University, Canada (1999−2002), National Universiy of Singapore, Singapore (2006),  Myongji University, Korea, (2008) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia (2007, 2009-2016). Currently, he is Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, Canada.

His lifetime achievements were rewarded by many honors. He has obtained the Research Award, International Desalination and Environmental Association (1983), Fellow of Chemical Institute of Canada (1989), a session dedicated to S. Sourirajan and T. Matsuura's lifelong contribution to Membrane Science and Technology at the 8th Annual Meeting of the North American Membrane Society (May 18-22, 1996), G.S. Glinski Award for Excellence in Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa (1998), a special issue in honour of  Prof. Matsuura on his 75th Birthday published by Desalination (2012), 11th International Conference on Membrane Science and Technology (MST 2013), Kuala Lumpur, held in honour of Dr. Matsuura and Prof. Pikul Wanichapichart (Aug. 27-29, 2013), and Honorary Degree of Doctor of Engineering of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (2017).

Membranes is pleased to announce a call for a Special Issue honouring Professor Emeritus Takashi Matsuura on the occasion of his 85th birthday and his outstanding achievements in membrane science and technology. This Special Issue is dedicated to all aspects of membrane science and technology and all contributions related to Professor Matsuura’s particular research interests such as polymer surface modification, membrane surface modification, development of composite membranes, development of hollow fibers and hollow fiber modules, development of inorganic membranes, development of heat and pH resistant membranes, membrane characterization by plasma ablation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopy, membrane transport, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, membrane gas and vapour separation, pervaporation, membrane battery separation and fuel cells, are most welcome.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue. Regular articles, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman
Dr. Juhana Jaafar
Dr. Mukhlis A. Rahman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Membrane fabrication and characterization
  • Flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes
  • Polymeric and ceramic membranes
  • Phase inversion and interfacial polymerization
  • Membrane transport
  • Water and wastewater treatment
  • Gas separation
  • Fuel cell

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
Modification of Thin Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membrane by Polyethylene Glycol with Different Molecular Weights
by Siti Nur Amirah Idris, Nora Jullok, Woei Jye Lau, Akmal Hadi Ma’Radzi, Hui Lin Ong, Muhammad Mahyidin Ramli and Cheng-Di Dong
Membranes 2022, 12(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12030282 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
An investigation of the effect of the molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on thin-film composite (TFC) flat sheet polysulfone membrane performance was conducted systematically, for application in forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). The TFC flat sheet PSf-modified membranes were [...] Read more.
An investigation of the effect of the molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on thin-film composite (TFC) flat sheet polysulfone membrane performance was conducted systematically, for application in forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). The TFC flat sheet PSf-modified membranes were prepared via a non-solvent phase-separation technique by introducing PEGs of different molecular weights into the dope solution. The TFC flat sheet PSf-PEG membranes were characterized by SEM, FTIR and AFM. The PSf membrane modified with PEG 600 was found to have the optimum composition. Under FO mode, this modified membrane had a water permeability of 12.30 Lm−2h−1 and a power density of 2.22 Wm−2, under a pressure of 8 bar in PRO mode, using 1 M NaCl and deionized water as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. The high water permeability and good mechanical stability of the modified TFC flat sheet PSF-PEG membrane in this study suggests that this membrane has great potential in future osmotically powered generation systems. Full article
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15 pages, 5141 KiB  
Article
Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Hollow Fiber Membrane Incorporated with Antibacterial and Anti-Fouling by Zinc Oxide for Water and Wastewater Treatment
by Roziana Kamaludin, Lubna Abdul Majid, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Sumarni Mansur, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Keng Yinn Wong, Watsa Khongnakorn and Mohd Hafiz Puteh
Membranes 2022, 12(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12020110 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
The addition of antibacterial material to hollow fiber membranes improves the membrane anti-biofouling characteristics. Antibacterial membranes were fabricated in this study to improve membrane function while also extending membrane lifetime. Neat polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and PVDF hollow fiber membrane with the incorporation of [...] Read more.
The addition of antibacterial material to hollow fiber membranes improves the membrane anti-biofouling characteristics. Antibacterial membranes were fabricated in this study to improve membrane function while also extending membrane lifetime. Neat polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and PVDF hollow fiber membrane with the incorporation of antibacterial agent zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with various loading (2.5–7.5 wt.%) were fabricated by using dry/wet spinning method. The membrane structure, particle distribution, functional group, hydrophilicity, and pore size of each membrane were all assessed. The result shows that all ZnO/PVDF hollow fiber membranes have the asymmetric structure with even dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles throughout the membranes. The results showed that increased ZnO loadings considerably improved membrane hydrophilicity, and average pore size, in addition to good performance of pure water flux. Antibacterial testing shows that ZnO incorporated in the membrane matrix and membrane surfaces prevents bacteria that cause biofouling from adhering to the membrane. ZnO/PVDF membrane recorded excellent bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection at 93.4% ± 0.4 with flux recovery rate at 70.9% ± 2.1. These results suggest that antibacterial ZnO/PVDF hollow fiber membranes are promising in relation to reducing biofouling for various water and wastewater treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
Membranes for the Capture and Screening of Waterborne Plutonium Based on a Novel Pu-Extractive Copolymer Additive
by James C. Foster, Timothy A. DeVol and Scott M. Husson
Membranes 2022, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12010003 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
This contribution describes the fabrication of plutonium-adsorptive membranes by non-solvent induced phase separation. The dope solution comprised poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a Pu-extractive copolymer additive of PVDF-g-poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate) (EGMP) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The effects of casting conditions on membrane [...] Read more.
This contribution describes the fabrication of plutonium-adsorptive membranes by non-solvent induced phase separation. The dope solution comprised poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a Pu-extractive copolymer additive of PVDF-g-poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate) (EGMP) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The effects of casting conditions on membrane permeability were determined for PVDF membranes prepared with 10 wt% PVDF-g-EGMP. Direct-flow filtration and alpha spectrometry showed that membranes containing the graft copolymer could recover Pu up to 59.9 ± 3.0% from deionized water and 19.3 ± 3.5% from synthetic seawater after filtering 10 mL of 0.5 Bq/mL 238Pu. SEM-EDS analysis indicated that the graft copolymer was distributed evenly throughout the entire depth of the copolymer membranes, likely attributing to the tailing observed in the alpha spectra for 238Pu. Despite the reduction in resolution, the membranes exhibited high Pu uptake at the conditions tested, and new membrane designs that promote copolymer surface migration are expected to improve alpha spectrometry peak energy resolutions. Findings from this study also can be used to guide the development of extractive membranes for chromatographic separation of actinides from contaminated groundwater sources. Full article
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13 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
Seawater Desalination by Modified Membrane Distillation: Effect of Hydrophilic Surface Modifying Macromolecules Addition into PVDF Hollow Fiber Membrane
by Mochammad Purwanto, Nindita Cahya Kusuma, Ma’rup Ali Sudrajat, Juhana Jaafar, Atikah Mohd Nasir, Mohd Haiqal Abd Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mukhlis A Rahman, Yanuardi Raharjo and Nurul Widiastuti
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120924 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Hollow fiber membranes of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of hydrophilic surface-modifying macromolecules (LSMM) and a constant amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG) additives. The membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet spinning technique. The prepared hollow fiber membranes were dip-coated [...] Read more.
Hollow fiber membranes of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of hydrophilic surface-modifying macromolecules (LSMM) and a constant amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG) additives. The membranes were fabricated by the dry-wet spinning technique. The prepared hollow fiber membranes were dip-coated by hydrophobic surface-modifying macromolecules (BSMM) as the final step fabrication. The additives combination is aimed to produce hollow fiber membranes with high flux permeation and high salt rejection in the matter of seawater desalination application. This study prepares hollow fiber membranes from the formulation of 18 wt. % of PVDF mixed with 5 wt. % of PEG and 3, 4, and 5 wt. % of LSMM. The membranes are then dip-coated with 1 wt. % of BSMM. The effect of LSMM loading on hydrophobicity, morphology, average pore size, surface porosity, and membrane performance is investigated. Coating modification on LSMM membranes showed an increase in contact angle up to 57% of pure, unmodified PVDF/PEG membranes, which made the fabricated membranes at least passable when hydrophobicity was considered as one main characteristic. Furthermore, The PVDF/PEG/4LSMM-BSMM membrane exhibits 161 °C of melting point as characterized by the DSC. This value indicates an improvement of thermal behavior shows so as the fabricated membranes are desirable for membrane distillation operation conditions range. Based on the results, it can be concluded that PVDF/PEG membranes with the use of LSMM and BSMM combination could enhance the permeate flux up to 81.32 kg·m−2·h−1 at the maximum, with stable salt rejection around 99.9%, and these are found to be potential for seawater desalination application. Full article
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19 pages, 6322 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of High Performance PVDF Hollow Fiber Membrane Using Less Toxic Solvent at Different Additive Loading and Air Gap
by Hazirah Syahirah Zakria, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Roziana Kamaludin, Asim Jilani, Muhammad Firdaus Omar, Suriani Abu Bakar, Juhana Jaafar, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Huda Abdullah, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Oulavanh Sinsamphanh and Muhammad Ayub
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110843 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
Existing toxic solvents in the manufacturing of polymeric membranes have been raising concerns due to the risks of exposure to health and the environment. Furthermore, the lower tensile strength of the membrane renders these membranes unable to endure greater pressure during water treatment. [...] Read more.
Existing toxic solvents in the manufacturing of polymeric membranes have been raising concerns due to the risks of exposure to health and the environment. Furthermore, the lower tensile strength of the membrane renders these membranes unable to endure greater pressure during water treatment. To sustain a healthier ecosystem, fabrication of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane using a less toxic solvent, triethyl phosphate (TEP), with a lower molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) (0–3 wt.%) additive were experimentally demonstrated via a phase inversion-based spinning technique at various air gap (10, 20 and 30 cm). Membrane with 2 wt.% of PEG 400 exhibited the desired ultrafiltration asymmetric morphology, while 3 wt.% PEG 400 resulting microfiltration. The surface roughness, porosity, and water flux performance increased as the loading of PEG 400 increased. The mechanical properties and contact angle of the fabricated membrane were influenced by the air gap where 20 cm indicate 2.91 MPa and 84.72°, respectively, leading to a stronger tensile and hydrophilicity surface. Lower toxicity TEP as a solvent helped in increasing the tensile properties of the membrane as well as producing an eco-friendly membrane towards creating a sustainable environment. The comprehensive investigation in this study may present a novel composition for the robust structure of polymeric hollow fiber membrane that is suitable in membrane technology. Full article
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14 pages, 3457 KiB  
Article
Novel Thin Film Nanocomposite Forward Osmosis Membranes Prepared by Organic Phase Controlled Interfacial Polymerization with Functional Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
by Xu Zhang, Jiuhan Zheng, Lusheng Xu, Ming Yin, Guoliang Zhang, Wenqian Zhao, Zeyu Zhang, Chong Shen and Qin Meng
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070476 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Novel high-quality thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for enhanced forward osmosis (FO) were first synthesized through organic phase controlled interfacial polymerization by utilizing functional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). As 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) grafted MWCNTs via an amidation reaction significantly promoted the dispersion in organic [...] Read more.
Novel high-quality thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for enhanced forward osmosis (FO) were first synthesized through organic phase controlled interfacial polymerization by utilizing functional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). As 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) grafted MWCNTs via an amidation reaction significantly promoted the dispersion in organic solution, MWCNTs-APTES with better compatibility effectively restricted the penetration of trimesoyl chloride (TMC), thus adjusting the morphology and characters of TFN membranes. Various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), sessile droplet analysis and FO experiments and reverse osmosis (RO) operation were taken to characterize and evaluate the performance of nanocomposites and membranes. The prepared TFN FO membranes exhibited good hydrophilicity and separation efficiency, in which water flux was about twice those of thin film composite (TFC) membranes without MWCNTs-APTES in both AL-DS and AL-FS modes. Compared with the original TFC membrane, the membrane structural parameter of the novel TFN FO membrane sharply was cut down to 60.7%. Based on the large number of low mass-transfer resistance channels provided by functional nanocomposites, the progresses may provide a facile approach to fabricate novel TFN FO membranes with advanced selectivity and permeability. Full article
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13 pages, 25370 KiB  
Article
Experimental Performance of a Membrane Desorber Operating under Simulated Warm Weather Condensation Temperatures
by Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena, Wilfrido Rivera, Sandra Daniela Nanco-Mejía, Rosenberg J. Romero, Eduardo Venegas-Reyes and Ulises Dehesa-Carrasco
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070474 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
In absorption systems using the aqueous lithium bromide mixture, the Coefficient of Performance is affected by the desorber. The main function of this component is to separate the refrigerant fluid from the working mixture. In conventional boiling desorbers, constant heat flux and vacuum [...] Read more.
In absorption systems using the aqueous lithium bromide mixture, the Coefficient of Performance is affected by the desorber. The main function of this component is to separate the refrigerant fluid from the working mixture. In conventional boiling desorbers, constant heat flux and vacuum pressure conditions are necessary to carry out the desorption process, and usually, the absorbers are heavy and bulky; thus, they are not suitable in compact systems. In this study, a membrane desorber was evaluated, operating at atmospheric pressure conditions with a water/lithium bromide solution with a concentration of 49.6% w/w. The effects of the solution temperature, solution mass flow, and condensation temperature on the desorption rate were analyzed. The maximum desorption rate value was 6.1 kg/m2h with the following operation conditions: the solution temperature at 95.2 °C, the solution mass flow at 4.00 × 10−2 kg/s, and the cooling water temperature at 30.1 °C. On the other hand, the minimum value was 1.1 kg/m2h with the solution temperature at 80.2 °C, the solution mass flow at 2.50 × 10−2 kg/s, and the cooling water temperature at 45.1 °C. The thermal energy efficiency, defined as the ratio between the thermal energy used to evaporate the refrigerant fluid with respect to the total thermal energy entering the membrane desorber, varied from 0.08 to 0.30. According to the results, a high solution mass flow, a high solution temperature, and a low condensation temperature lead to an increase in the desorption rate; however, a low solution mass flow enhanced the thermal energy efficiency. The proposed membrane desorber could replace a conventional boiling desorber, especially in absorption cooling systems that operate at high condensation temperatures as in warm weather regions. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 15292 KiB  
Review
Current Status and Future Trend of Dominant Commercial Reverse Osmosis Membranes
by Masaru Kurihara
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110906 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3710
Abstract
Since 2000, seawater reverse osmosis method has been a dominant desalination technology against the distillation method in the global market. The large project called “Mega-SWRO” (half mega-ton per day and larger) plant in the Middle East is quite popular making full use of [...] Read more.
Since 2000, seawater reverse osmosis method has been a dominant desalination technology against the distillation method in the global market. The large project called “Mega-SWRO” (half mega-ton per day and larger) plant in the Middle East is quite popular making full use of the combination with solar energy. Today, the price of desalinated water is affordable at as low as $0.28/m3 to $0.53/m3. Likewise, dominant commercial reverse osmosis membrane is a cross-linked fully aromatic polyamide composite membrane-spiral wound element including FT-30 (DuPont Water Solution) and UTC-80 (Toray Industries., Inc., Otsu, Shiga, Japan). The said membranes are much superior in terms of performance compared to the cellulose triacetate membranes-hollow fiber for variety of applications including seawater desalinations, brackish water desalination, wastewater reuse, ultra-pure production for semiconductor, home-use water purifier, etc. SWCC of Saudi Arabia has announced that it intends to shift from cellulose triacetate hollow fiber to spiral wound RO membranes at all of its plants. Furthermore, the state-sponsored R&D on membrane and membrane process has been put into practice in major countries, including Japan and Korea, which contributed to the progress of membrane science and membrane process, suitable for spiral-wound polyamide membranes. SWCC has announced their plans for SWRO, mainly focusing on brine mining to obtain precious materials from the brine of SWRO. New and innovative brine-mining technology has been introduced for green desalination. Full article
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19 pages, 2704 KiB  
Review
A Prospective Concept on the Fabrication of Blend PES/PEG/DMF/NMP Mixed Matrix Membranes with Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes for CO2/N2 Separation
by Ashvin Viknesh Mahenthiran and Zeinab Abbas Jawad
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070519 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
With an ever-increasing global population, the combustion of fossil fuels has risen immensely to meet the demand for electricity, resulting in significant increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In recent years, CO2 separation technology, such as membrane technology, has become [...] Read more.
With an ever-increasing global population, the combustion of fossil fuels has risen immensely to meet the demand for electricity, resulting in significant increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In recent years, CO2 separation technology, such as membrane technology, has become highly desirable. Fabricated mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have the most desirable gas separation performances, as these membranes have the ability to overcome the trade-off limitations. In this paper, blended MMMs are reviewed along with two polymers, namely polyether sulfone (PES) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Both polymers can efficiently separate CO2 because of their chemical properties. In addition, blended N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylformamide (DMF) solvents were also reviewed to understand the impact of blended MMMs’ morphology on separation of CO2. However, the fabricated MMMs had challenges, such as filler agglomeration and void formation. To combat this, functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs-F) fillers were utilised to aid gas separation performance and polymer compatibility issues. Additionally, a summary of the different fabrication techniques was identified to further optimise the fabrication methodology. Thus, a blended MMM fabricated using PES, PEG, NMP, DMF and MWCNTs-F is believed to improve CO2/nitrogen separation. Full article
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