Special Issue "Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes"

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Preparation and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Victor V. Nikonenko
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Chemistry, Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya st., 350040 Krasnodar, Russia
Interests: ion-exchange membranes; structure-property relationships; transport phenomena; experiment; modelling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) are the weak link in the electromembrane technologies. They cause more troubles than cation-exchange membranes.  Generally, the lifetime of AEMs is shorter, they are less selective and more prone to fouling; the unwanted water splitting reaction is more intensive. The main goal of the Special Issue is to contribute to the advancement of AEMs’ knowledge. Understanding of the behavior of AEMs using experimental and theoretical (modelling, simulation) studies; methods of preparation of new membranes and modification of commercial ones  are within the scope of the Special issue. Studies on structure-property relationships; dependence of the AEM performance on the preparation/modification method; mechanisms of ion and molecules transport in and through the AEMs; membrane fouling and ways of fighting it; use of AEMs in separation, extraction and removal of species; other aspects of AEMs preparation, characterization and application are of great interest. Authors are invited to submit their latest results, both original papers and reviews; in particular, contributions to assess the state-of-the-art and future developments  are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Victor V. Nikonenko
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • anion-exchange membrane
  • preparation
  • characterization
  • structure-property relationship
  • ion transport
  • chemical reaction
  • separation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Ion Transport Parameters and Electrochemical Performance of Plasticized Biocompatible Chitosan-Based Proton Conducting Polymer Composite Electrolytes
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110363 - 21 Nov 2020
Abstract
In this study, biopolymer composite electrolytes based on chitosan:ammonium iodide:Zn(II)-complex plasticized with glycerol were successfully prepared using the solution casting technique. Various electrical and electrochemical parameters of the biopolymer composite electrolytes’ films were evaluated prior to device application. The highest conducting plasticized membrane [...] Read more.
In this study, biopolymer composite electrolytes based on chitosan:ammonium iodide:Zn(II)-complex plasticized with glycerol were successfully prepared using the solution casting technique. Various electrical and electrochemical parameters of the biopolymer composite electrolytes’ films were evaluated prior to device application. The highest conducting plasticized membrane was found to have a conductivity of 1.17 × 10−4 S/cm. It is shown that the number density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient of cations and anions fractions are increased with the glycerol amount. Field emission scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques are used to study the morphology and structure of the films. The non-Debye type of relaxation process was confirmed from the peak appearance of the dielectric relaxation study. The obtained transference number of ions (cations and anions) and electrons for the highest conducting sample were identified to be 0.98 and 0.02, respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry shows that the electrochemical stability of the highest conducting plasticized system is 1.37 V. The cyclic voltammetry response displayed no redox reaction peaks over its entire potential range. It was discovered that the addition of Zn(II)-complex and glycerol plasticizer improved the electric double-layer capacitor device performances. Numerous crucial parameters of the electric double-layer capacitor device were obtained from the charge-discharge profile. The prepared electric double-layer capacitor device showed that the initial values of specific capacitance, equivalence series resistance, energy density, and power density are 36 F/g, 177 Ω, 4.1 Wh/kg, and 480 W/kg, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Evaluation of Anion Exchange Membranes for the Desalination of (Waste) Water Produced after Polymer-Flooding
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110352 - 18 Nov 2020
Abstract
Electrodialysis (ED) has been recently proposed to desalinate polymer-flooding produced water (PFPW), a byproduct stream from the oil and gas industry rich in charged polymers. However, process performance is limited by fouling occurring on the ion-exchange membranes, particularly on the anionic ones (AEMs). [...] Read more.
Electrodialysis (ED) has been recently proposed to desalinate polymer-flooding produced water (PFPW), a byproduct stream from the oil and gas industry rich in charged polymers. However, process performance is limited by fouling occurring on the ion-exchange membranes, particularly on the anionic ones (AEMs). Thus, this study aimed to correlate the properties of different AEMs with their performance while desalinating PFPW, ultimately evaluating their significance when fouling is to be minimized and operation improved. Six stacks containing different homogeneous and commercially available AEMs were employed to desalinate synthetic PFPW during 8-days ED experiments operated in reversal mode. AEMs recovered from the stacks were analyzed in terms of water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, permselectivity, and area resistance, and compared with virgin AEMs. Relatively small changes were measured for most of the parameters evaluated. For most AEMs, the water uptake and resistance increased, while the ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and permselectivity decreased during operation. Ultimately, AEMs with high area resistance were linked to the fast development of limiting current conditions in the stack, so this property turned out to be the most relevant when desalinating PFPW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle
Desalination Performance Assessment of Scalable, Multi-Stack Ready Shock Electrodialysis Unit Utilizing Anion-Exchange Membranes
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110347 - 17 Nov 2020
Abstract
Incumbent electromembrane separation processes, including electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI), provide competitive techniques for desalination, selective separation, and unique solutions for ultra-pure water production. However, most of these common electrochemical systems are limited by concentration polarization and the necessity for multistep raw water [...] Read more.
Incumbent electromembrane separation processes, including electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI), provide competitive techniques for desalination, selective separation, and unique solutions for ultra-pure water production. However, most of these common electrochemical systems are limited by concentration polarization and the necessity for multistep raw water pre-treatment. Shock electrodialysis (SED) utilizes overlimiting current to produce fresh, deionized water in a single step process by extending ion depleted zones that propagate through a porous medium as a sharp concentration gradient or a shock wave. So far, SED has been demonstrated on small scale laboratory units using cation-exchange membranes. In this work, we present a scalable and multi-stack ready unit with a large, 5000 mm2 membrane active area designed and constructed at the Technical University of Liberec in cooperation with MemBrain s.r.o. and Mega a.s. companies (Czechia). We report more than 99% salt rejection using anion-exchange membranes, depending on a dimensionless parameter that scales the constant applied current by the limiting current. It is shown that these parameters are most probably associated with pore size and porous media chemistry. Further design changes need to be done to the separator, the porous medium, and other functional elements to improve the functionality and energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Splitting and Transport of Ions in Electromembrane System with Bilayer Ion-Exchange Membrane
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110346 - 16 Nov 2020
Abstract
Bilayer ion-exchange membranes are mainly used for separating single and multiply charged ions. It is well known that in membranes in which the layers have different charges of the ionogenic groups of the matrix, the limiting current decreases, and the water splitting reaction [...] Read more.
Bilayer ion-exchange membranes are mainly used for separating single and multiply charged ions. It is well known that in membranes in which the layers have different charges of the ionogenic groups of the matrix, the limiting current decreases, and the water splitting reaction accelerates in comparison with monolayer (isotropic) ion-exchange membranes. We study samples of bilayer ion-exchange membranes with very thin cation-exchange layers deposited on an anion-exchange membrane-substrate in this work. It was revealed that in bilayer membranes, the limiting current’s value is determined by the properties of a thin surface film (modifying layer). A linear regularity of the dependence of the non-equilibrium effective rate constant of the water-splitting reaction on the resistance of the bipolar region, which is valid for both bilayer and bipolar membranes, has been revealed. It is shown that the introduction of the catalyst significantly reduces the water-splitting voltage, but reduces the selectivity of the membrane. It is possible to regulate the fluxes of salt ions and water splitting products (hydrogen and hydroxyl ions) by changing the current density. Such an ability makes it possible to conduct a controlled process of desalting electrolytes with simultaneous pH adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes with a Poly(vinyl Chloride) Backing and Binder
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110344 - 16 Nov 2020
Abstract
An alkali treatment under various operating conditions is conducted on a commercial anion-exchange membrane containing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a backing and binder to study the effect of the treatment on the mechanical properties by both Müllen burst and tensile tests. Contrary to [...] Read more.
An alkali treatment under various operating conditions is conducted on a commercial anion-exchange membrane containing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a backing and binder to study the effect of the treatment on the mechanical properties by both Müllen burst and tensile tests. Contrary to our expectations, the Müllen burst pressure and tensile strain at break improved significantly after the alkali treatment in comparison to the pristine membrane and then decreased as the treatment period progressed. A good correlation is observed between the area below the stress–strain curve and burst pressure. To understand the obtained results, the PVC degradates are recovered by Soxhlet extraction and characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. It is discovered that the PVC main chains degraded in the alkali solution. We propose a composite model to explain the burst pressure improvement mechanism by the change in the chemical structure of the PVC binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle
Alkali Attack on Cation-Exchange Membranes with Polyvinyl Chloride Backing and Binder: Comparison with Anion-Exchange Membranes
Membranes 2020, 10(9), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090228 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Systematic alkali immersion tests of cation-exchange membranes (CEM) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as their backing and binder were conducted to compare that of an Anion-exchange membrane (AEM) with the same PVC materials to investigate the mechanism of dehydrochlorination. In the immersion tests, originally [...] Read more.
Systematic alkali immersion tests of cation-exchange membranes (CEM) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as their backing and binder were conducted to compare that of an Anion-exchange membrane (AEM) with the same PVC materials to investigate the mechanism of dehydrochlorination. In the immersion tests, originally colorless and transparent AEM turned violet, and chemical structure analysis showed that polyene was produced by the dehydrochlorination reaction. However, the CEM did not change in color, chemical structure or membrane properties during the test with less than 1M alkali solutions. According to the Donnan equilibrium theory and the experiments using CEM and AEM, the hydroxide ion concentration in the CEM was much lower than that in the AEM under the same conditions. However, when the alkali immersion test was performed using the CEM under more severe conditions (6 M for 168 h at 40 °C), there was a slight change in the color and chemical structure of the CEM, clearly indicating that not only AEMs, but also CEMs with PVC matrixes were deteriorated by alkali, depending on the conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Surface Modifications of Anion Exchange Membranes for an Improved Reverse Electrodialysis Process Performance: A Review
Membranes 2020, 10(8), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10080160 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) technology represents a promising electro-membrane process for renewable energy harvesting from aqueous streams with different salinity. However, the performance of the key components of the system, that is, the ion exchange membranes, is limited by both the presence of multivalent [...] Read more.
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) technology represents a promising electro-membrane process for renewable energy harvesting from aqueous streams with different salinity. However, the performance of the key components of the system, that is, the ion exchange membranes, is limited by both the presence of multivalent ions and fouling phenomena, thus leading to a reduced generated net power density. In this context, the behavior of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in RED systems is more severely affected, due to the undesirable interactions between their positively charged fixed groups and, mostly negatively charged, foulant materials present in natural streams. Therefore, controlling both the monovalent anion permselectivity and the membrane surface hydrophilicity is crucial. In this respect, different surface modification procedures were considered in the literature, to enhance the above-mentioned properties. This review reports and discusses the currently available approaches for surface modifications of AEMs, such as graft polymerization, dip coating, and layer-by-layer, among others, mainly focusing on preparing monovalent permselective AEMs with antifouling characteristics, but also considering hydrophilicity aspects and identifying the most promising modifying agents to be utilized. Thus, the present study aimed at providing new insights for the further design and development of selective, durable, and cost-effective modified AEMs for an enhanced RED process performance, which is indispensable for a practical implementation of this electro-membrane technology at an industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Experiment of Anion-Exchange Membranes)
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