Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Sports Traumatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2021) | Viewed by 25764

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of Leon, 24071 Leon, Spain
Interests: clinical physiology; exercise physiology; exercise prescription; sports physiology; sarcopenia; osteoporosis; ergometry; densitometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The body's functioning is designed for movement, and to a large extent, health depends on the amount of movement one makes throughout one’s life. In recent years, muscle has gone from being regarded simply as an executor of the commands of the motor nervous system to being recognized as an important endocrine organ, regulating metabolic, immune and cognitive function. The intensity, frequency and mode of muscle exercise have different effects on organs, physiological systems and health. The study of the physiological effects of resistance exercise and its application in rehabilitation is emerging with unusual interest.

Gathering research on these topics in a Special Issue will help to make the studies more referenced and have a greater impact. We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. Jose Antonio de Paz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Clinical Physiology
  • Therapeutic exercise
  • Adaptation to exercise
  • Strength training
  • Resistance training
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Sarcopenia
  • Myokines
  • Joint replacement

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 995 KiB  
Article
Muscle Quality of Knee Extensors Based on Several Types of Force in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Varying Degrees of Disability
by Kora Portilla-Cueto, Carlos Medina-Pérez, Ena Monserrat Romero-Pérez, Gabriel Núñez-Othón, Mario A. Horta-Gim and José Antonio de Paz
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020316 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) tends to affect muscle performance, mainly in the lower extremities. The degree of disability is associated with the loss of strength and muscle mass, to varying extents. Muscle quality (MQ) expresses the amount of force produced [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) tends to affect muscle performance, mainly in the lower extremities. The degree of disability is associated with the loss of strength and muscle mass, to varying extents. Muscle quality (MQ) expresses the amount of force produced relative to the activated muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to compare the MQ of the knee extensors in the main manifestations of strength (isometric, dynamic strength, and power) among patients with differing degrees of neurological disability and evolutionary forms of the disease. We also establish reference values for MQ in MS patients (pwMS). Materials and Methods: In total, 250 pwMS were evaluated according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The maximum dynamic and isometric forces and muscle power manifested a load of 60% of the maximum dynamics of the knee extensors. The lean mass of the thigh and hip was determined by densitometry, and the MQ was calculated for the three types of force evaluated. Results: The pwMS with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) presented isometric MQ values that were 15.8% better than those of pwMS with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and 13.8% better than those of pwMS with secondary progressive MS (SPMS). For pwMS with SPMS, the dynamic MQ was 16.7% worse than that of patients with RRMS, while the power MQ was 29.5% worse. By degree of disability (<4 >7.5 EDSS score), patients with better MQ had mild EDSS scores, and patients with severe EDSS scores had 24.8%, 25.9%, and 40.3% worse isometric, dynamic, and power MQ scores, respectively, than those with RRMS. Based on these results, reference values for MQ in pwMS were established. Conclusions: The pwMS with different types of MS do not show differences in lean mass or strength but do show differences in MQ. In pwMS with different EDSS grades, there are no differences in lean mass, but there are differences in strength based on MQ, especially power MQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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19 pages, 1197 KiB  
Article
Blisters and Calluses from Rowing: Prevalence, Perceptions and Pain Tolerance
by Joseph N. Grima, Michelle Vella Wood, Nadia Portelli, James N. Grima-Cornish, Daphne Attard, Alfred Gatt, Cynthia Formosa and Dario Cerasola
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010077 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4924
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Rowing is a sport that involves constant gripping, pulling/pushing, and rotational movements of the hands, in a cyclic periodic manner with every stroke, with hundreds of strokes being taken within a short period of time. Dermatological issues on rowers’ hands [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Rowing is a sport that involves constant gripping, pulling/pushing, and rotational movements of the hands, in a cyclic periodic manner with every stroke, with hundreds of strokes being taken within a short period of time. Dermatological issues on rowers’ hands (fingers and palms) in the form of blisters and calluses are common knowledge within the community, but their prevalence and the rower’s perceptions and pain tolerance to them has never been systematically evaluated. This work addresses these lacunae. Materials and Methods: Analysis of data collected from a survey on a sample of competitive (117) and noncompetitive rowers (28) who row on-water (total 145). Results: It was found that approximately 69% of rowers participating in this study have calluses on their hands for most of their time (considered by them as not painful). The incidence of blisters was found to be lower (but perceived as more painful). Their incidence was found to be fairly independent of the frequency and intensity of training, but they seem to affect most rowers equally at the beginning of season or during a change of position (nonconditioned hands). Blisters and calluses were reported to be mainly located on the proximal phalanges and metacarpo-phalangeal joint area of both hands, i.e., on the lower parts of the fingers and the upper inner palms. Conclusions: Rowers demonstrated a sense of acceptance of these dermatological issues, even a sense of pride in what they represent. The incidence of blisters becoming infected was estimated to be so low that most rowers would not have encountered such serious, albeit rare, consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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9 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Frailty and Different Exercise Interventions to Improve Gait Speed in Older Adults after Acute Coronary Syndrome
by Aurelija Beigienė, Daiva Petruševičienė, Vitalija Barasaitė, Raimondas Kubilius and Jūratė Macijauskienė
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121344 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The world’s population is rapidly aging, and it is estimated that, by 2050, every sixth person on earth will be older than 65 years. Around 30% of older adults entering cardiac rehabilitation (CR) meet the criteria of frailty. Frailty [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The world’s population is rapidly aging, and it is estimated that, by 2050, every sixth person on earth will be older than 65 years. Around 30% of older adults entering cardiac rehabilitation (CR) meet the criteria of frailty. Frailty identification has not been included in the routine evaluation of CR patients yet, and there is a lack of evidence on what training regimen for improving physical performance in frail people is optimal. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and to evaluate the effect of two different complementary training programs on the gait speed of older vulnerable and frail patients with acute coronary syndrome and mid-range-to-preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥40%) during short-term CR. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2020 to September 2021. CR participants (n = 97) with a mean age of 73.1 ± 5.3 years were randomly allocated into three groups: control (CG, n = 32), intervention-1 (IG-1, n = 32) and intervention-2 (IG-2, n = 33). The patients of all three groups attended a usual inpatient CR program, and two intervention groups additionally received different resistance and balance training programs 3 days a week: the IG-1 underwent complementary training with traditional means of physical therapy, while the IG-2 underwent complementary training with mechanical devices. The mean CR duration was 18.9 ± 1.7 days. Frailty was assessed with the Edmonton Frail Scale, and the 5 m walk test was used to evaluate gait speed. Results: Frailty was determined in 37.1% of participants, and 42.3% met the criteria of being vulnerable. After CR, the gait speed of frail and vulnerable patients significantly improved in all three groups (p < 0.05). In the IG-2, slow gait speed was reversed to normal in the overwhelming majority of patients (p < 0.05), while the CG had the greatest proportion of patients who remained to be slow after CR (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A considerable part of patients entering CR are frail or vulnerable; therefore, it is of crucial importance to assess frailty status in all older people. All three CR programs improved gait speed in frail and vulnerable older patients with ischemic heart disease. Complementary resistance and balance training with mechanical devices more effectively reversed slow gait speed to normal during short-term CR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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13 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Ipsilateral Lower-to-Upper Limb Cross-Transfer Effect on Muscle Strength, Mechanical Power, and Lean Tissue Mass after Accentuated Eccentric Loading
by Hashish R. Magdi, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo and José Antonio de Paz
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050445 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To investigate the effects of unilateral accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on changes in lean mass and function of leg trained (TL) and ipsilateral non-trained arm (NTA) in young men and women. Materials and Methods: In a prospective trial, 69 Physically [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To investigate the effects of unilateral accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on changes in lean mass and function of leg trained (TL) and ipsilateral non-trained arm (NTA) in young men and women. Materials and Methods: In a prospective trial, 69 Physically active university students (20.2 ± 2.2 years) were randomly placed into a training group (n = 46; 27 men, 19 women) or a control group without training (n = 23; 13 men, 10 women). Participants in the training group performed unilateral AEL in the leg press exercise of the dominant leg twice a week for 10 weeks. An electric motor device-generated isotonic resistance at different intensities for both concentric (30% of 1-RM) and eccentric contractions (105% of 1-RM). Changes in thigh and arm lean tissue mass, unilateral leg press and unilateral elbow flexion maximal concentric (1-RM) and isometric strength (MVIC), and unilateral muscle power at 40, 60, and 80% 1-RM for both leg press and elbow flexion exercises before and after intervention were compared between groups, between sexes and between TL and NTA. Results: Both men and women in the training group showed increases (p < 0.05) in lean tissue mass, 1-RM, MVIC, and muscle power for TL. In NTA, 1-RM, MVIC, and muscle power increased without significant differences between sexes, but neither in men nor women changes in lean tissue mass were observed. In addition, men showed greater changes in TL, but changes in NTA were similar between sexes. No gains in any variable were found for the control group. Conclusions: AEL protocol produced similar neuromuscular changes in TL and ipsilateral NTA, which suggests that strong ipsilateral lower-to-upper limb cross-transfer effects were induced by the eccentric-overload training. However, early ipsilateral increases in muscle force and power were not associated with lean mass gains. Both men and women experienced similar changes in NTA; however, men showed greater changes in TL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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10 pages, 6970 KiB  
Article
Early Results of Kinesio Taping and Steroid Injections in Elbow Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized, Controlled Study
by Firat Erpala, Tahir Ozturk, Eyup Cagatay Zengin and Ugur Bakir
Medicina 2021, 57(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040306 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3808
Abstract
Background and objectives: This study prospectively compares early results of Kinesio tape (KT) as an alternative method for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis with those of corticosteroid injection and the rest-and-medication group (RMG). Materials and methods: Among the fifty patients (53 elbows), KT [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: This study prospectively compares early results of Kinesio tape (KT) as an alternative method for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis with those of corticosteroid injection and the rest-and-medication group (RMG). Materials and methods: Among the fifty patients (53 elbows), KT was applied to 20 patients (21 elbows), and corticosteroid injection (CSI) was applied to 15 patients (17 elbows). Fifteen patients were included in the RMG. Patients in the RMG were informed about their condition, and necessary warnings were given. No oral or topical treatments were recommended. If needed, paracetamol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were prescribed. Patients were classified according to the Nirschl scores and evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS); Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QDASH); and the Turkish version of the Patient Related Elbow Evaluation (PREE-T). Results: Improvements in all scores were statistically significant in all groups at the end of the second week. At the end of the fourth week, there was also a statistically significant improvement in all three groups, but these improvements were not as high as they were in the first 2 weeks. There was a slight deterioration in the functional scores in the RMG and CSI groups, while the improvement in the KT group continued. In the KT group, the average QDASH score was 18.1 (4.5–35), the VAS score was 2 (1–3), the VAS score in resisted wrist extension was 4 (2–5) and the Nirschl score was 2 (1–3) at the fourth week. The KT group had significant superiority in these parameters over the RMG (p = 0.035, p = 0.035, p = 0.029, p = 0.035, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the KT, the RMG and the CSI groups at the fourth week. Conclusions: CSI, KT and rest-and-medication treatments were all effective in terms of pain reduction and functional scores at the end of week 2, and the only treatment that continued to be effective in the final week was KT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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9 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Unilateral and Bilateral Strength Asymmetry among Young Elite Athletes of Various Sports
by Maros Kalata, Tomas Maly, Mikulas Hank, Jakub Michalek, David Bujnovsky, Egon Kunzmann and Frantisek Zahalka
Medicina 2020, 56(12), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120683 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Background and objective: Type of physical activity may influence morphological and muscular asymmetries in the young population. However, less is known about the size of this effect when comparing various sports. The aim of this study was to identify the degree of bilateral [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Type of physical activity may influence morphological and muscular asymmetries in the young population. However, less is known about the size of this effect when comparing various sports. The aim of this study was to identify the degree of bilateral asymmetry (BA) and the level of unilateral ratio (UR) between isokinetic strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) among athletes of three different types of predominant locomotion in various sports (symmetric, asymmetric and hybrid). Material and methods: The analyzed group consisted of young elite athletes (n = 50). The maximum peak muscle torque of the KE and KF in both the dominant (DL) and non-dominant (NL) lower limb during concentric muscle contraction at an angular velocity of 60°·s−1 was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: Data analysis showed a significant effect of the main factor (the type of sport) on the level of monitored variables (p = 0.004). The type of sport revealed a significant difference in the bilateral ratio (p = 0.01). The group of symmetric and hybrid sports achieved lower values (p = 0.01) of BA in their lower limb muscles than those who played asymmetric sports. The hybrid sports group achieved higher UR values (p = 0.01) in both lower limbs. Conclusions: The results indicate that sports with predominantly symmetrical, asymmetrical, and hybrid types of locomotion affected the size of the BA, as well as the UR between KE and KF in both legs in young athletes. We recommend paying attention to regular KE and KF strength diagnostics in young athletes and optimizing individual compensatory exercises if a higher ratio of strength asymmetry is discovered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)

Review

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10 pages, 286 KiB  
Review
Obesity and Brain Function: The Brain–Body Crosstalk
by Sophia X. Sui and Julie A. Pasco
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100499 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4600
Abstract
Dementia comprises a wide range of progressive and acquired neurocognitive disorders. Obesity, defined as excessive body fat tissue, is a common health issue world-wide and a risk factor for dementia. The adverse effects of obesity on the brain and the central nervous system [...] Read more.
Dementia comprises a wide range of progressive and acquired neurocognitive disorders. Obesity, defined as excessive body fat tissue, is a common health issue world-wide and a risk factor for dementia. The adverse effects of obesity on the brain and the central nervous system have been the subject of considerable research. The aim of this review is to explore the available evidence in the field of body–brain crosstalk focusing on obesity and brain function, to identify the major research measurements and methodologies used in the field, to discuss the potential risk factors and biological mechanisms, and to identify the research gap as a precursor to systematic reviews and empirical studies in more focused topics related to the obesity–brain relationship. To conclude, obesity appears to be associated with reduced brain function. However, obesity is a complex health condition, while the human brain is the most complicated organ, so research in this area is difficult. Inconsistency in definitions and measurement techniques detract from the literature on brain–body relationships. Advanced techniques developed in recent years are capable of improving investigations of this relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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