Special Issue "Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1010-660X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Website E-Mail
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of York, Toronto, Canada
Interests: public health and epidemiology; bioinformatics; biophysics; biomathematics and mathematical modelling; digital health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nano-medicine can be defined as a complex, multi-disciplinary branch of medicine, in which nano-technologies, molecular biotechnologies, and other nano-sciences are applied at every step of disease management, from diagnosis (nano-diagnostics) to treatment (nano-therapeutics), prognosis, and monitoring of biological parameters and biomarkers. Nano-medicine potentially enables physicians to detect a disorder early, before its clinical manifestations, as well as to provide drugs in a rational, precise, and targeted way, thereby minimizing the risk of the occurrence of side-effects as much as possible. Furthermore, different sub-specialties such as nano-neurosurgery, nano-otorhinolaryngology, nano-dentistry, nano-ophthalmology, nano-neurology, nano-cardiology, nano-orthopedics, nano-infectivology, and nano-oncology are emerging within nano-medicine. Nano-medicine is a relatively young discipline, which is increasingly and exponentially growing, characterized by emerging ethical issues and implications. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to gather contributions, reflecting the various aspects of nano-medicine, either from a theoretical, applied, or translational standpoint, including regulatory aspects.

Dr. Nicola Bragazzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nano-biosciences
  • Nano-technologies
  • Biotechnologies
  • Nano-medicine
  • Nano-biosensors
  • Nano-biomaterials
  • Nano-diagnostics
  • Nano-therapeutics
  • Nano-biosystems
  • Nano-ethics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Drug-Eluting Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces Deposited by Spin Coating
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080421 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background and objectives: Medical devices such as catheters are used on a large scale to treat heart and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, they present some important drawbacks (structure failure, calcifications, infections, thrombosis, etc.), with the main side effects occurring due to adhesion and proliferation [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Medical devices such as catheters are used on a large scale to treat heart and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, they present some important drawbacks (structure failure, calcifications, infections, thrombosis, etc.), with the main side effects occurring due to adhesion and proliferation of bacteria and living cells on the surface of the implanted devices. The aim of this work is to modify the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), an affordable biocompatible material, in order to reduce these aforementioned side effects. Materials and Methods: The surface of PVC was modified by depositing a thin layer also of PVC that incorporates an active substance, dicoumarol (a well-known anticoagulant), by spin coating process. The modified surfaces were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine the surface morphology and behavior. The samples were tested for Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) standard strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Results: The material obtained had a smooth surface with a uniform distribution of dicoumarol, which is released depending on the deposition parameters. The concentration of dicoumarol at the surface of the material and also the release rate is important for the applications for which the surface modification was designed. PVC modified using the proposed method showed a good ability to prevent salt deposition and decreased the protein adhesion, and the resistance to bacterial adherence was improved compared with standard PVC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Analysis, Ephedra Procera C. A. Mey. Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Potentials
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55070369 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The current study focuses on an eco-friendly and cost-effective method of Ephedra procera C. A. Mey. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as potential cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant agents. Materials and Methods: Plant aqueous extracts were screened for Total Phenolic [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The current study focuses on an eco-friendly and cost-effective method of Ephedra procera C. A. Mey. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as potential cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant agents. Materials and Methods: Plant aqueous extracts were screened for Total Phenolic (TPC), Total Flavonoid contents (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging potentials. Total reducing power estimated by potassium ferricyanide colorimetric assay. The biosynthesized E. procera nanoparticles (EpNPs) were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. EpNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial, bio-compatibility and cytotoxic potentials. Results: Initial phytocheimcal analysis of plant aqueous extract revealed TFC of 20.7 ± 0.21 µg/mg extract and TPC of 117.01 ± 0.78 µg/mg extract. TAC, DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power were 73.8 ± 0.32 µg/mg extract, 71.8 ± 0.73% and 105.4 ± 0.65 µg/mg extract respectively. The synthesized EpNPs were observed to possess high cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cell lines with IC50 (61.3 µg/mL) as compared aqueous extract with IC50 of (247 µg/mL). EpNPs were found to be biocompatible and have less effect on human erythrocytes. EpNPs exhibited significant antioxidant potentials and exhibited considerable activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) of 11.12 μg/mL and 11.33 μg/mL respectively. Fungal species Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were found susceptible to EpNPs. Conclusions: Results of the current study revealed that EpNPs exhibited considerable antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potentials. Aqueous extract possesses significant anti-radical properties and thus can be useful in free radicals induced degenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation, Optimization, and In Vivo Evaluation of Nanoparticle-Based Formulation for Pulmonary Delivery of Anticancer Drug
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060294 - 20 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background and Oobjectives: Lung cancer, a pressing issue in present-day society due to its high prevalence and mortality rate, can be managed effectively by long-term delivery of anticancer agents encapsulated in nanoparticles in the form of inhalable dry powder. This approach is expected [...] Read more.
Background and Oobjectives: Lung cancer, a pressing issue in present-day society due to its high prevalence and mortality rate, can be managed effectively by long-term delivery of anticancer agents encapsulated in nanoparticles in the form of inhalable dry powder. This approach is expected to be of strategic importance in the management of lung cancer and is a developing area in current research. In the present investigation, we report on the formulation and characterization of docetaxel inhalable nanoparticles as a viable alternative for effective treatment of non-small cell lung cancer as a long-term delivery choice. Materials and Methods: Poloxamer (PLX-188) coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing docetaxel (DTX-NPs) were prepared by simple oil in water (o/w) single emulsification-solvent evaporation process. The nanoparticles were collected as pellet by centrifugation, dispersed in mannitol solution, and lyophilized to get dry powder. Results: Optimized DTX-NPs were smooth and spherical in morphology, had particle size around 200 nm, zeta potential around −36 mV, and entrapment efficiency of around 60%. The in vitro anticancer assay was assessed and it was observed that nanoparticle-based formulation exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity when compared to the free form of the drug post 48 h. On examining for in vitro drug release, slow but continuous release was seen until 96 h following Higuchi release kinetics. DTX-NPs were able to maintain their desired characteristics when studied at accelerated conditions of stability. Conclusions: In-vivo study indicated that the optimized nanoparticles were well retained in lungs and that the drug level could be maintained for a longer duration if given in the form of DTX-NPs by the pulmonary route. Thus, the non-invasive nature and target specificity of DTX-NPs paves the way for its future use as a pulmonary delivery for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Multifunctional Platforms Based on Graphene Oxide and Natural Products
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060230 - 30 May 2019
Abstract
Background and objectives: In the last few years, graphene oxide has attracted much attention in biomedical applications due to its unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as a carrier for both hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic biomolecules. The purpose of this paper was to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In the last few years, graphene oxide has attracted much attention in biomedical applications due to its unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as a carrier for both hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic biomolecules. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize graphene oxide and to obtain multifunctional platforms based on graphene oxide as a nanocarrier loaded with few biologically active substances with anticancer, antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory properties such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, limonene and nutmeg and cembra pine essential oils. Materials and Methods: Graphene oxide was obtained according to the method developed by Hummers and further loaded with biologically active agents. The obtained platforms were characterized using FTIR, HPLC, TGA, SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. Results: Gallic acid released 80% within 10 days but all the other biologically active agents did not release because their affinity for the graphene oxide support was higher than that of the phosphate buffer solution. SEM characterization showed the formation of nanosheets and a slight increase in the degree of agglomeration of the particles. The ratio I2D/IG for all samples was between 0.18 for GO-cembra pine and 0.27 for GO-limonene, indicating that the GO materials were in the form of multilayers. The individual GO sheets were found to have less than 20 µm, the thickness of GO was estimated to be ~4 nm and an interlayer spacing of about 2.12 Å. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the bioactive substances were adsorbed on the surface and no degradation occurred during loading. Conclusions: These findings encourage this research to further explore, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological activities of bioactive agents for their use in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of the Genotoxicity and Antigenotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Metallic Nanomaterials: Are Green Nanoparticles Safe Enough for Clinical Marketing?
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080439 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background and objectives: Although studies have elucidated the significant biomedical potential of biogenic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), it is very important to explore the hazards associated with the use of biogenic MNPs. Evidence indicates that genetic toxicity causes mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Although studies have elucidated the significant biomedical potential of biogenic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), it is very important to explore the hazards associated with the use of biogenic MNPs. Evidence indicates that genetic toxicity causes mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Materials and Methods: Therefore, we systematically review original studies that investigated the genotoxic effect of biologically synthesized MNPs via in vitro and in vivo models. Articles were systematically collected by screening the literature published online in the following databases; Cochrane, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, and EBSCO. Results: Most of the studies were carried out on the MCF-7 cancer cell line and phytosynthesis was the general approach to MNP preparation in all studies. Fungi were the second most predominant resource applied for MNP synthesis. A total of 80.57% of the studies synthesized biogenic MNPs with sizes below 50 nm. The genotoxicity of Ag, Au, ZnO, TiO2, Se, Cu, Pt, Zn, Ag-Au, CdS, Fe3O4, Tb2O3, and Si-Ag NPs was evaluated. AgNPs, prepared in 68.79% of studies, and AuNPs, prepared in 12.76%, were the two most predominant biogenic MNPs synthesized and evaluated in the included articles. Conclusions: Although several studies reported the antigenotoxic influence of biogenic MNPs, most of them reported biogenic MNP genotoxicity at specific concentrations and with a dose or time dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs and provide a valuable summary of genotoxicity data. In conclusion, our study implied that the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs varies case-by-case and highly dependent on the synthesis parameters, biological source, applied assay, etc. The gathered data are required for the translation of these nanoproducts from research laboratories to the clinical market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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