Development and Application of Objective Measures in Physiotherapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders, Orthopedics, and Sports Medicine

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Sports Traumatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 8293

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Ergonomics and Biomedical Monitoring Laboratory, Department of Physiotherapy, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: return-to-sport decision making; biomedical monitoring; isokinetics; knee joint; physiotherapy; rehabilitation; surface electromyography
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to an upcoming Special Issue of Medicina entitled “Development and Application of Objective Measures in Physiotherapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders, Orthopedics, and Sports Medicine”.

Objective measures constitute an integral part of the examination of the patient in physiotherapy for musculoskeletal disorders, orthopedics, and sports medicine; this is for diagnostic, treatment monitoring, and follow-up purposes, as well as for the prevention of primary and secondary musculoskeletal injuries. Objectively measured outcomes supplement the health outcomes directly reported by the patient experiencing them, known as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and pain ratings. Objective measures are also an aspect of clinical and physical examination, and are fundamental to the so-called performance-based measures. The value of a measure lies in its ability to be compared; therefore, before using any measure instrument or tool for research or clinical practice purposes, its reliability and validity must be determined.

This Special Issue is open to authors who wish to submit their research and review articles addressing the development and application of objective measures for diagnostic, treatment monitoring, and follow-up purposes in physiotherapy, orthopedics, and sports medicine. We strongly encourage authors to submit papers that focus on preventing primary and secondary musculoskeletal injuries. In addition, reliability and validity studies are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Królikowska
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • clinical evaluation
  • functional performance
  • injury prevention
  • muscle strength
  • orthopedics
  • performance-based measures
  • physical examination
  • physiotherapy
  • rehabilitation
  • reliability
  • sports medicine
  • surface electromyography
  • validity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Different Strength Measurement in Taekwondo: Herman Trainer, Manual Tester, and Standing Long Jump
by Ayşe Hazal Boyanmış, İnci Kesilmiş, Manolya Akın, Buse Yilmaz, Aşina Uslular, Yesim Karac Ocal and Hulya Andre
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040550 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Background and Objective: The accurate prediction of strength development relies on identifying the most appropriate measurement methods. This study compared diverse strength measurement techniques to assess their effectiveness in predicting strength development. Participants were taekwondo athletes competing at the red–black belt level [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: The accurate prediction of strength development relies on identifying the most appropriate measurement methods. This study compared diverse strength measurement techniques to assess their effectiveness in predicting strength development. Participants were taekwondo athletes competing at the red–black belt level or above. Methods: Technical striking forces (palding, dollyeo chagi, dwit chagi, and yeop chagi) were measured using a Herman Digital Trainer fixed to a striking stand. Quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed with a Lafayette force measuring device. Explosive leg strength was evaluated through a standing long jump test, normalized for leg length. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine relationships between measurement methods. Results: The standing long jump test showed no significant correlation with other strength assessments. A moderate positive correlation was found between Herman digital trainer measurements and Lafayette digital hand-held dynamometer results. A high positive correlation (r = 0.736, p < 0.001) emerged between hamstring strength and palding chagi technical strike force results. Technical strike kicks showed a significant positive correlation with each other and, also, a right foot–left foot correlation was observed. Conclusions: It was concluded that the standing long jump test, which was shown as one of the explosive leg strength measurement methods in field studies as an alternative to laboratory tests, did not correlate with other strength tests; therefore, this test is weak and insufficient to predict strength skills in taekwondo. In addition, this study showed that the hamstring muscle was more predictive in the measurement of technical strength. In future studies, it might be more useful to measure hamstring muscle strength or technical kick strength instead of a standing long jump field test. Full article
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11 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Implications of Inter-Limb Asymmetries on Sprint, Agility, and Jump Performance in Young Highly-Trained Basketball Athletes: Is There a Relevant Threshold?
by Fernando Domínguez-Navarro, Javier Gámez-Payá, Borja Ricart-Luna and Iván Chulvi-Medrano
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010131 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of vertical jump inter-limb asymmetries among young highly-trained basketball athletes and to analyze its impact on sport performance, specifically in sprints, agility, and vertical jumps. Materials and Methods: A unilateral countermovement [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of vertical jump inter-limb asymmetries among young highly-trained basketball athletes and to analyze its impact on sport performance, specifically in sprints, agility, and vertical jumps. Materials and Methods: A unilateral countermovement jump (CMJ) was employed to determine Inter-limb Index Asymmetry (IAI) in 320 participants aged from 14 to 18 years, from the Valencia Basket youth academy. IAI was categorized into three groups: 0–9.9%, 10–14.9%, and >15%. The relationship between IAI and performance variables was analyzed through correlation studies (Pearson or Spearman’s). The influence of IAI magnitude was assessed using ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis analysis, with leg dominance as a covariable. SPSS Statistics version 26 was used for analysis. Results: Among all the participants, the mean IAI was 10.6%. Correlation studies revealed non-significant values (p < 0.05) between IAI and sport performance variables. The three IAI magnitude groups did not show statistically significant differences in sprint, agility, and jump outcomes. Leg dominance did not seem to influence performance outcomes, except for unilateral CMJ. Conclusions: The results obtained challenge the assumption that an IAI above 10% negatively affects sprint, agility, or jump performance in young basketball athletes. Notably, the magnitude of IAI did not influence sport performance parameters, suggesting that the 10–15% threshold from previous studies may not be applicable to this population. The study emphasizes the need to understand lower-limb asymmetries in the context of specific sport task performance, considering the potential evolution over time among affected young athletes. Full article
14 pages, 3262 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Short-Term Massage Procedures on Neuromechanical Contractile Properties of Rectus Femoris Muscle
by Miloš Dakić, Vladimir Ilić, Lazar Toskić, Sasa Duric, Jožef Šimenko, Milan Marković, Milivoj Dopsaj and Ivan Cuk
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010125 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In many sports, maintaining muscle work at an optimal level despite fatigue is crucial. Therefore, it is essential to discover the most efficient way of recovery. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the acute effects of four different [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In many sports, maintaining muscle work at an optimal level despite fatigue is crucial. Therefore, it is essential to discover the most efficient way of recovery. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the acute effects of four different recovery methods on muscle neuromechanical properties. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted using a randomized, quasi-experimental, repeated-measures design. Fourteen healthy and active male students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education (age 25.1 ± 3.9 years) were included in this study. The tensiomyography was used to evaluate muscle responses after four different types of short-term recovery methods (passive rest, percussive mechanical, vibro-mechanical, and manual massage) on the rectus femoris muscle on four occasions: baseline, post fatigue, post recovery and prolonged recovery. Results: The ANOVA revealed that muscle fatigue decreased maximal vertical muscle displacement (Dm) and muscle contraction time (Tc) in post fatigue compared to the baseline. The most important finding shows that only the vibro-mechanical massage resulted in an increase in Tc in the prolonged recovery compared to the post fatigue (p = 0.028), whereas only manual massage showed no differences in Dm from the baseline in post-recovery (p = 0.148). Moreover, both manual and vibro-mechanical massages increased Dm and Tc in prolonged recovery, indicating no differences from the baseline (all p > 0.05), thus showing signs of muscle recovery. Percussion mechanical massage and passive rest did not show indices of muscle recovery. Conclusions: Manual massage could induce immediate positive changes in Dm by reducing muscle stiffness. In addition, vibro-mechanical and manual massage improved muscle tissue by rapidly returning Dm and Tc values to baseline at prolonged recovery measurement (5 min after the fatigue protocol). These findings can benefit sports practitioners, and physical therapists in developing the best recovery method after muscle fatigue. Full article
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15 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Suspension Training on Dynamic, Static Balance, and Stability: An Interventional Study
by José-María Blasco, Fernando Domínguez-Navarro, Catalina Tolsada-Velasco, Irene de-Borja-Fuentes, Elena Costa-Moreno, Carmen García-Gomáriz, María-José Chiva-Miralles, Sergio Roig-Casasús and David Hernández-Guillen
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010047 - 26 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: While suspension training devices are increasingly gaining popularity, there is limited evidence on their effects on balance, and no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 9-session suspension training program on dynamic and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: While suspension training devices are increasingly gaining popularity, there is limited evidence on their effects on balance, and no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 9-session suspension training program on dynamic and static balance, stability, and functional performance. Materials and Methods: A total of forty-eight healthy adults, aged between 18 and 30, participated in a 9-session suspension training program. The program included exercises targeting upper and lower body muscles as well as core muscles. Balance was comprehensively assessed using various dynamic balance tests, including the Y Balance Test (YBT) as the primary outcome, single-leg Emery test, and sideways jumping test. Static balance was evaluated through the monopedal and bipedal Romberg tests. Changes from baseline were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Thirty-nine participants (mean age: 21.8 years) completed the intervention. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in YBT, jumping sideways, Emery, and 30s-SST scores (p < 0.001). Platform measures indicated enhanced monopedal stability (p < 0.001) but did not show a significant effect on bipedal stability (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Suspension training is a safe and feasible method for improving dynamic balance and functional performance in healthy, untrained young adults. However, it does not appear to significantly impact the ability to maintain a static posture while standing. Full article
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14 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Does Rotation and Anterior Translation Persist as Residual Instability in the Knee after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? (Evaluation of Coronal Lateral Collateral Ligament Sign, Tibial Rotation, and Translation Measurements in Postoperative MRI)
by Yavuz Selim Karatekin, Harun Altınayak, Lokman Kehribar, Ali Kerim Yılmaz, Esra Korkmaz and Berna Anıl
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111930 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of residual instability in the knee after ACL reconstruction through the analysis of MRI findings. Methods: This study included patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction between December 2019 and December 2021, and [...] Read more.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of residual instability in the knee after ACL reconstruction through the analysis of MRI findings. Methods: This study included patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction between December 2019 and December 2021, and had preoperative and postoperative MRI, clinical scores, and postoperative isokinetic measurements. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) distance, coronal lateral collateral ligament (LCL) sign, and femorotibial rotation (FTR) angle were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. The correlation between the changes in preoperative–postoperative measurements and postoperative measurements with clinical scores and isokinetic measurements was examined. The clinical outcomes were compared based on the presence of a postoperative coronal LCL sign. Inclusion criteria were set as follows: the time between the ACL rupture and surgery being 6 months, availability of preoperative and postoperative clinical scores, and objective determination of muscle strength using isokinetic dynamometer device measurements. Patients with a history of previous knee surgery, additional ligament injuries other than the ACL, evidence of osteoarthritis on direct radiographs, cartilage injuries lower limb deformities, and contralateral knee injuries were excluded from this study. Results: This study included 32 patients. After ACL reconstruction, there were no significant changes in the ATT distance (preoperatively: 6.5 ± 3.9 mm, postoperatively: 5.7 ± 3.2 mm) and FTR angle (preoperatively: 5.4° ± 2.9, postoperatively: 5.2° ± 3.5) compared to the preoperative measurements (p > 0.05). The clinical measurements were compared based on the presence of a postoperative coronal LCL sign (observed in 17 patients, not observed in 15 patients), and no significant differences were found for all parameters (p > 0.05). There were no observed correlations between postoperative FTR angle, postoperative ATT distance, FTR angle change, and ATT distance change values with postoperative clinical scores (p > 0.05). Significant correlations were observed between the high strength ratios generated at an angular velocity of 60° and a parameters FTR angle and ATT distance (p-values: 0.028, 0.019, and r-values: −0.389, −0.413, respectively). Conclusions: Despite undergoing ACL reconstruction, no significant changes were observed in the indirect MRI findings (ATT distance, coronal LCL sign, and FTR angle). These results suggest that postoperative residual tibiofemoral rotation and tibial anterior translation may persist; however, they do not seem to have a direct impact on clinical scores. Furthermore, the increase in tibial translation and rotation could potentially negatively affect the flexion torque compared to the extension torque in movements requiring high torque at low angular velocities. Full article
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29 pages, 795 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating the Reliability of MyotonPro in Assessing Muscle Properties: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Test Accuracy
by Jonathan Lettner, Aleksandra Królikowska, Nikolai Ramadanov, Łukasz Oleksy, Hassan Tarek Hakam, Roland Becker and Robert Prill
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060851 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Muscle properties are critical for performance and injury risk, with changes occurring due to physical exertion, aging, and neurological conditions. The MyotonPro device offers a non-invasive method to comprehensively assess muscle biomechanical properties. This systematic review evaluates the reliability of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Muscle properties are critical for performance and injury risk, with changes occurring due to physical exertion, aging, and neurological conditions. The MyotonPro device offers a non-invasive method to comprehensively assess muscle biomechanical properties. This systematic review evaluates the reliability of MyotonPro across various muscles for diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was conducted in Medline (PubMed), Ovid (Med), Epistemonikos, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinical trials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials platform. Studies assessing the reliability of MyotonPro across different muscles were included. A methodological quality assessment was performed using established tools, and reviewers independently conducted data extraction. Statistical analysis involved summarizing intra-rater and inter-rater reliability measures across muscles. Results: A total of 48 studies assessing 31 muscles were included in the systematic review. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were consistently high for parameters such as frequency and stiffness in muscles of the lower and upper extremities, as well as other muscle groups. Despite methodological heterogeneity and limited data on specific parameters, MyotonPro demonstrated promising reliability for diagnostic purposes across diverse patient populations. Conclusions: The findings suggest the potential of MyotonPro in clinical assessments for accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of muscle properties. Further research is needed to address limitations and enhance the applicability of MyotonPro in clinical practice. Reliable muscle assessments are crucial for optimizing treatment outcomes and improving patient care in various healthcare settings. Full article
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