Special Issue "Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Magnus Willander
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-60174, Norrköping, Sweden
Tel. +46 13 281000
Interests: nanostructures; nanophysics and mesoscopic physics
Dr. Zafar Hussain Ibupoto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Sindh: Jamshoro, Pakistan
Interests: biosensors; nanotechnology; nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal oxide materials have been very important for various applications for many decades. Particularly, during the last two decades, research on different aspects of nanomaterials and nanocomposites of metal oxides has been very active. The nanocomposites of metal oxides, including inorganic and organic hybrids for electronics, and electrochemical energy conversion applications, are highly investigated. Therefore, this Special Issue is focused on a broad readership and audience for easy access to the current progress in these active nanomaterials for diverse applications. Importantly, metal oxide nanostructures used in the development of sensitive and selective biosensors, as well as future directions in this field, will be encouraged. Critical review articles and excellent research findings from experts and scientists in the field of metal oxide nanostructures used in the field of solid state electronics and sensor technology are highly welcome in this Special Issue of Materials. This is not an exhaustive list of topics, and interesting research articles related to metal oxide synthesis, characterization and new applications will also be covered in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Magnus Willander
Dr. Zafar Hussain Ibupoto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal oxides
  • nanostructures
  • nanocomposites
  • sensors
  • solid-state electronics
  • energy conversion

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Simulation of Semiconductor Metal Oxide Gas Sensors
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152410 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is a growing demand in the semiconductor industry to integrate many functionalities on a single portable device. The integration of sensor fabrication with the mature CMOS technology has made this level of integration a reality. However, sensors still require calibration and optimization [...] Read more.
There is a growing demand in the semiconductor industry to integrate many functionalities on a single portable device. The integration of sensor fabrication with the mature CMOS technology has made this level of integration a reality. However, sensors still require calibration and optimization before full integration. For this, modeling and simulation is essential, since attempting new, innovative designs in a laboratory requires a long time and expensive tests. In this manuscript we address aspects for the modeling and simulation of semiconductor metal oxide gas sensors, devices which have the highest potential for integration because of their CMOS-friendly fabrication capability and low operating power. We analyze recent advancements using FEM models to simulate the thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of the sensors. These simulations are essentials to calibrate the design choices and ensure low operating power and improve reliability. The primary consumer of power is a microheater which is essential to heat the sensing film to appropriately high temperatures in order to initiate the sensing mechanism. Electro-thermal models to simulate its operation are presented here, using FEM and the Cauer network model. We show that the simpler Cauer model, which uses an electrical circuit to model the thermo-electrical behavior, can efficiently reproduce experimental observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
ZnCr2O4 Inclusions in ZnO Matrix Investigated by Probe-Corrected STEM-EELS
Materials 2019, 12(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060888 - 16 Mar 2019
Abstract
The ZnCr2O4/ZnO materials system has a wide range of potential applications, for example, as a photocatalytic material for waste-water treatment and gas sensing. In this study, probe-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis were utilized to [...] Read more.
The ZnCr2O4/ZnO materials system has a wide range of potential applications, for example, as a photocatalytic material for waste-water treatment and gas sensing. In this study, probe-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis were utilized to study the dislocation structure and strain distribution at the interface between zinc oxide (ZnO) and embedded zinc chromium oxide (ZnCr2O4) particles. Ball-milled and dry-pressed ZnO and chromium oxide (α-Cr2O3) powder formed ZnCr2O4 inclusions in ZnO with size ~400 nm, where the interface properties depended on the interface orientation. In particular, sharp interfaces were observed for ZnO [2 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 3]/ZnCr2O4 [1 1 ¯ 0] orientations, while ZnO [1 2 ¯ 10]/ZnCr2O4 [112] orientations revealed an interface over several atomic layers, with a high density of dislocations. Further, monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy was employed to map the optical band gap of ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles in the ZnO matrix and their interface, where the average band gap of ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles was measured to be 3.84 ± 0.03 eV, in contrast to 3.22 ± 0.01 eV for the ZnO matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Heart/Dumbbell-Like CuO Functional Nanostructures for the Development of Uric Acid Biosensor
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081378 - 08 Aug 2018
Abstract
It is always demanded to prepare a nanostructured material with prominent functional properties for the development of a new generation of devices. This study is focused on the synthesis of heart/dumbbell-like CuO nanostructures using a low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method with vitamin B [...] Read more.
It is always demanded to prepare a nanostructured material with prominent functional properties for the development of a new generation of devices. This study is focused on the synthesis of heart/dumbbell-like CuO nanostructures using a low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method with vitamin B12 as a soft template and growth directing agent. CuO nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. CuO nanostructures are heart/dumbbell like in shape, exhibit high crystalline quality as demonstrated by XRD, and have no impurity as confirmed by XPS. Apparently, CuO material seems to be porous in structure, which can easily carry large amount of enzyme molecules, thus enhanced performance is shown for the determination of uric acid. The working linear range of the biosensor is 0.001 mM to 10 mM with a detection limit of 0.0005 mM and a sensitivity of 61.88 mV/decade. The presented uric acid biosensor is highly stable, repeatable, and reproducible. The analytical practicality of the proposed uric acid biosensor is also monitored. The fabrication methodology is inexpensive, simple, and scalable, which ensures the capitalization of the developed uric acid biosensor for commercialization. Also, CuO material can be used for various applications such as solar cells, lithium ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Functionalization of Porous Silicon/WO3 Nanorods with Pd Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced NO2-Sensing Performance at Room Temperature
Materials 2018, 11(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050764 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The decoration of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of metal oxide semiconductors to enhance material characteristics and gas-sensing performance has recently attracted increasing attention from researchers worldwide. Here, we have synthesized porous silicon (PS)/WO3 nanorods (NRs) functionalized with Pd NPs [...] Read more.
The decoration of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of metal oxide semiconductors to enhance material characteristics and gas-sensing performance has recently attracted increasing attention from researchers worldwide. Here, we have synthesized porous silicon (PS)/WO3 nanorods (NRs) functionalized with Pd NPs to enhance NO2 gas-sensing performance. PS was first prepared using electrochemical methods and worked as a substrate. WO3 NRs were synthesized by thermally oxidizing W film on the PS substrate. Pd NPs were decorated on the surface of WO3 NRs via in-situ reduction of the Pd complex solution by using Pluronic P123 as the reducing agent. The gas-sensing characteristics were tested at different gas concentrations and different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. Results revealed that, compared with bare PS/WO3 NRs and Si/WO3 NRs functionalized with Pd NPs, the Pd-decorated PS/WO3 NRs exhibited higher and quicker responses to NO2, with a detection concentration as low as 0.25 ppm and a maximum response at room temperature. The gas-sensing mechanism was also investigated and is discussed in detail. The high surface area to volume ratio of PS and the reaction-absorption mechanism can be explained the enhanced sensing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical-Based Biosensors on Different Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: A Review
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182985 - 15 Sep 2019
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors have shown great potential in the medical diagnosis field. The performance of electrochemical biosensors depends on the sensing materials used. ZnO nanostructures play important roles as the active sites where biological events occur, subsequently defining the sensitivity and stability of the [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors have shown great potential in the medical diagnosis field. The performance of electrochemical biosensors depends on the sensing materials used. ZnO nanostructures play important roles as the active sites where biological events occur, subsequently defining the sensitivity and stability of the device. ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized into four different dimensional formations, which are zero dimensional (nanoparticles and quantum dots), one dimensional (nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanowires), two dimensional (nanosheets, nanoflakes, nanodiscs, and nanowalls) and three dimensional (hollow spheres and nanoflowers). The zero-dimensional nanostructures could be utilized for creating more active sites with a larger surface area. Meanwhile, one-dimensional nanostructures provide a direct and stable pathway for rapid electron transport. Two-dimensional nanostructures possess a unique polar surface for enhancing the immobilization process. Finally, three-dimensional nanostructures create extra surface area because of their geometric volume. The sensing performance of each of these morphologies toward the bio-analyte level makes ZnO nanostructures a suitable candidate to be applied as active sites in electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnostic purposes. This review highlights recent advances in various dimensions of ZnO nanostructures towards electrochemical biosensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Native Point Defect Measurement and Manipulation in ZnO Nanostructures
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142242 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
This review presents recent research advances in measuring native point defects in ZnO nanostructures, establishing how these defects affect nanoscale electronic properties, and developing new techniques to manipulate these defects to control nano- and micro- wire electronic properties. From spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, we [...] Read more.
This review presents recent research advances in measuring native point defects in ZnO nanostructures, establishing how these defects affect nanoscale electronic properties, and developing new techniques to manipulate these defects to control nano- and micro- wire electronic properties. From spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, we now know that electrically-active native point defects are present inside, as well as at the surfaces of, ZnO and other semiconductor nanostructures. These defects within nanowires and at their metal interfaces can dominate electrical contact properties, yet they are sensitive to manipulation by chemical interactions, energy beams, as well as applied electrical fields. Non-uniform defect distributions are common among semiconductors, and their effects are magnified in semiconductor nanostructures so that their electronic effects are significant. The ability to measure native point defects directly on a nanoscale and manipulate their spatial distributions by multiple techniques presents exciting possibilities for future ZnO nanoscale electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
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