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Open AccessReview

Electrochemical-Based Biosensors on Different Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: A Review

1
Computational Nanoelectronic Research Lab, School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru, Skudai 81310, Malaysia
2
Microelectronics and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182985
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 15 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Solid-State Electronics and Sensors)
Electrochemical biosensors have shown great potential in the medical diagnosis field. The performance of electrochemical biosensors depends on the sensing materials used. ZnO nanostructures play important roles as the active sites where biological events occur, subsequently defining the sensitivity and stability of the device. ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized into four different dimensional formations, which are zero dimensional (nanoparticles and quantum dots), one dimensional (nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanowires), two dimensional (nanosheets, nanoflakes, nanodiscs, and nanowalls) and three dimensional (hollow spheres and nanoflowers). The zero-dimensional nanostructures could be utilized for creating more active sites with a larger surface area. Meanwhile, one-dimensional nanostructures provide a direct and stable pathway for rapid electron transport. Two-dimensional nanostructures possess a unique polar surface for enhancing the immobilization process. Finally, three-dimensional nanostructures create extra surface area because of their geometric volume. The sensing performance of each of these morphologies toward the bio-analyte level makes ZnO nanostructures a suitable candidate to be applied as active sites in electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnostic purposes. This review highlights recent advances in various dimensions of ZnO nanostructures towards electrochemical biosensor applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; nanorod; nanosheet; nanoflower; zinc oxide; electrochemical biosensor nanoparticle; nanorod; nanosheet; nanoflower; zinc oxide; electrochemical biosensor
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Napi, M.L.M.; Sultan, S.M.; Ismail, R.; How, K.W.; Ahmad, M.K. Electrochemical-Based Biosensors on Different Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: A Review. Materials 2019, 12, 2985.

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