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Special Issue "Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Sebastian Maćkowski

Nicholas Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland, and Baltic Institute of Technology, al. Zwyciestwa 96/98, 81-451 Gdynia, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy; plasmonics; energy transfer; artifical photosynthesis; carbon nanostrucutres; semiconductor nanocrystals; up-converting nanocrystals
Guest Editor
Prof. Joanna Niedziółka-Jönsson

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224, Warsaw, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metallic nanoparticles synthesis; surface modification; electrochemistry; surface plasmon resonance; fluoroscence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallic nanowires are unique materials in the large family of plasmonic nanostructures that, nowadays, can be fabricated using various methods with high precision and control. First of all, they exhibit plasmon resonance, which is rather broad, covering the visible spectral range and even stretching out to the infrared. In this way, metallic nanowires can be used for plasmon-manipulation of the optical properties of dyes, fluorescent proteins, semiconductor quantum dots, rare-earth ions, etc. In addition, their tens-of-microns lengths facilitate efficient propagation of energy via surface plasmon polaritons over distances much larger than the optical resolution of microscopy systems. This property allows for remote optical addressing and readout, as well as photoactivation of light-dependent processes. Last, but not least, the positions of the nanowires can be determined with relatively simple optical systems, making them applicable as geometric platforms. The combination of all three characteristics of metallic nanowires has led to a multitude of fundamental and applied research, with the latter focusing primarily on optoelectronics, photovoltaics and sensorics. The goal for this Special Issue is to describe the recent developments of this rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field. Therefore, we invite you to submit manuscripts for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Sebastian Maćkowski
Prof. Joanna Niedziółka-Jönsson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metallic nanowire
  • plasmon excitation
  • energy propagation
  • chemical synthesis
  • optoelectronics
  • photovoltaics
  • sensorics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic Modification of Ag Nanowires and Their Applications in Flexible Transparent Film Heaters and SERS Detectors
Materials 2019, 12(6), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060893
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Ultrasonic morphology modification of silver (Ag) nanowires and their applications in transparent film heaters for defogging in electric vehicles and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detectors have been studied. With 10 min ultrasonic treatment of Ag nanowires, the electro-thermal conversion capability of Ag nanowire [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic morphology modification of silver (Ag) nanowires and their applications in transparent film heaters for defogging in electric vehicles and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detectors have been studied. With 10 min ultrasonic treatment of Ag nanowires, the electro-thermal conversion capability of Ag nanowire based transparent film heaters is efficiently improved (about 50% increase in temperature rise), which can be mainly attributed to the cross-section area reduction and the serious agglomerations of the ultrasonic modified Ag nanowire films. Furthermore, the bending or fracture caused by deformation of Ag nanowires after ultrasonic treatment provides more hot spots for SERS, and therefore lead to a significant SERS signal enhancement. This work not only greatly improves the performance of Ag nanowire based transparent film heaters and SERS detectors, but provides a new way for the functional modification of Ag nanowires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Properties of Submillimeter Silver Nanowires Synthesized Using the Hydrothermal Method
Materials 2019, 12(5), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050721
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
We report on the synthesis of long silver nanowires using the hydrothermal method, with H2O2 as the reducing agent. Our approach yields nanowires with an average diameter and length of about 100 nm and 160 µm, respectively, reaching the maximum [...] Read more.
We report on the synthesis of long silver nanowires using the hydrothermal method, with H2O2 as the reducing agent. Our approach yields nanowires with an average diameter and length of about 100 nm and 160 µm, respectively, reaching the maximum length of 800 µm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements revealed the presence of a thick, inhomogeneous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) layer covering the nanowires, which with time becomes much more uniform, leading to well-defined extinction peaks in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra. This change in morphology is evidenced also by the fluorescence enhancement behavior probed using protein complexes. Wide-field and confocal fluorescence microscopy measurements demonstrate strong, 10-fold enhancement of the protein emission intensity, accompanied by a reduction of the fluorescence decay time. In addition, for the aged, one-month-old nanowires, the uniformity of the intensity profile along them was substantially improved as compared with the as-synthesized ones. The results point towards the importance of the morphology of plasmonically active silver nanowires when considering their application in enhancing optical properties or achieving energy propagation over submillimeter distances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle One-Step Synthesis of Silver Nanowires with Ultra-Long Length and Thin Diameter to Make Flexible Transparent Conductive Films
Materials 2019, 12(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030401
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
High aspect ratio silver nanowires (AgNWs) with ultra-long length and thin diameter were synthesized through bromine ion (Br)-assisted one-step synthesis method. The bromine ions were used as pivotal passivating agent. When the molar ratio of Br/Cl was 1:4, [...] Read more.
High aspect ratio silver nanowires (AgNWs) with ultra-long length and thin diameter were synthesized through bromine ion (Br)-assisted one-step synthesis method. The bromine ions were used as pivotal passivating agent. When the molar ratio of Br/Cl was 1:4, the average diameter of AgNWs was as low as ~40 nm, the average length was as high as ~120 μm, and the aspect ratio reached 2500. Networks of AgNWs were fabricated using as-prepared high-quality AgNWs as conducting material and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as the adhesive polymer. As a result, a low sheet resistance down to ~3.5 Ω sq−1 was achieved with a concomitant transmittance of 88.20% and a haze of 4.12%. The ultra-low sheet resistance of conductive film was attributed to the long and thin AgNWs being able to form a more effective network. The adhesion of the AgNWs to the substrate was 0/5B (ISO/ASTM). The insights given in this paper provide the key guidelines for bromine ion-assisted synthesis of long and thin AgNWs, and further designing low-resistance AgNW-based conductive film for optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Quantifying Joule Heating and Mass Transport in Metal Nanowires during Controlled Electromigration
Materials 2019, 12(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020310
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The nanoscale heat dissipation (Joule heating) and mass transport during electromigration (EM) have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Here, the EM-driven movement of voids in gold (Au) nanowires of different shapes (width range: 50–300 nm) was directly observed by performing atomic force [...] Read more.
The nanoscale heat dissipation (Joule heating) and mass transport during electromigration (EM) have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Here, the EM-driven movement of voids in gold (Au) nanowires of different shapes (width range: 50–300 nm) was directly observed by performing atomic force microscopy. Using the data, we determined the average mass transport rate to be 105 to 106 atoms/s. We investigated the heat dissipation in L-shaped, straight-shaped, and bowtie-shaped nanowires. The maximum Joule heating power of the straight-shaped nanowires was three times that of the bowtie-shaped nanowires, indicating that EM in the latter can be triggered by lower power. Based on the power dissipated by the nanowires, the local temperature during EM was estimated. Both the local temperature and junction voltage of the bowtie-shaped nanowires increased with the decrease in the Joule heating power and current, while the current density remained in the order of 108 A/cm2. The straight-shaped nanowires exhibited the same tendency. The local temperature at each feedback point could be simply estimated using the diffusive heat transport relationship. These results suggest that the EM-driven mass transport can be controlled at temperatures much lower than the melting point of Au. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Activation Overpotential during the Nucleation of Hcp-Cobalt Nanowires Synthesized by Potentio-Static Electrochemical Reduction
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122355
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crystal growth process and ferromagnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires were investigated by controlling the bath temperature and cathodic overpotential. The cathodic overpotential during electrodeposition of cobalt nanowire arrays, ΔEcath, was theoretically estimated by the difference between the cathode [...] Read more.
The crystal growth process and ferromagnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires were investigated by controlling the bath temperature and cathodic overpotential. The cathodic overpotential during electrodeposition of cobalt nanowire arrays, ΔEcath, was theoretically estimated by the difference between the cathode potential, Ecath, and the equilibrium potential, Eeq, calculated by the Nernst equation. On the other hand, the activation overpotential, ΔEact, was experimentally determined by the Arrhenius plot on the growth rate of cobalt nanowire arrays, Rg, versus (vs.) reciprocal temperature, 1/T. The ferromagnetic cobalt nanowire arrays with a diameter of circa (ca.) 25 nm had the preferred crystal orientation of (100) and the aspect ratio reached up to ca. 1800. The average crystal grain size, Ds, of (100) peaks was estimated by X-ray diffraction patterns and was increased by decreasing the cathodic overpotential for cobalt electrodeposition by shifting the cathode potential in the noble direction. Axial magnetization performance was observed in the cobalt nanowire arrays. With increasing Ds, coercivity of the film increased and reached up to ca. 1.88 kOe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Annealing Behaviour of Pt and PtNi Nanowires for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081473
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
PtNi alloy and hybrid structures have shown impressive catalytic activities toward the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, such promise does not often translate into improved electrode performances in PEMFC devices. In this contribution, a Ni [...] Read more.
PtNi alloy and hybrid structures have shown impressive catalytic activities toward the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, such promise does not often translate into improved electrode performances in PEMFC devices. In this contribution, a Ni impregnation and subsequent annealing method, translatable to vertically aligned nanowire gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs), is shown in thin-film rotating disk electrode measurements (TFRDE) to enhance the ORR mass activity of Pt nanowires (NWs) supported on carbon (Pt NWs/C) by around 1.78 times. Physical characterisation results indicate that this improvement can be attributed to a combination of Ni alloying of the nanowires with retention of the morphology, while demonstrating that Ni can also help improve the thermal stability of Pt NWs. These catalysts are then tested in single PEMFCs. Lower power performances are achieved for PtNi NWs/C than Pt NWs/C. A further investigation confirms the different surface behaviour between Pt NWs and PtNi NWs when in contact with electrolyte ionomer in the electrodes in PEMFC operation. Indications are that this interaction exacerbates reactant mass transport limitations not seen with TFRDE measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanowires and Their Applications)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1.

Quantifying Joule heating and mass transport in metal nanowires during controlled electromigration

Dr. Mamiko Yagi and Dr. Jun-ichi Shirakashi

Abstract

Nanoscale heat dissipation (Joule heating) and mass transport in electromigration (EM) have attracted considerable attention in recent years because the EM can be useful in preparing the electrodes with nanoscale gaps (nanogaps) in metal nanowires. Here, EM-driven movement of voids in different shaped Au nanowires with widths of 50-300 nm was directly observed by performing atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM measurements allowed us to detect the surface and depth changes during a computer controlled EM. Using these data, we estimated and captured average mass transport rate of 105-6 atoms/s. In addition, we investigated the heat dissipation in straight and bowtie-shaped nanowires. The maximum Joule heating power of straight nanowires was three times higher than that of bowtie-shaped nanowires, indicating that EM in bowtie-shaped nanowires can be triggered by lower power. Moreover, based on the power dissipated by the nanowires, the local temperature during EM was estimated. It was found that the local temperature of bowtie-shaped nanowires at the 1st onset of EM was around 400 K and increased during the process while the current density remained on the order of 108 A/cm2. It is noted that despite lower power this tendency was quite similar to that of straight nanowires. These results suggest that EM-driven mass transport was controlled at temperatures much smaller than the melting point of Au. Insights gained from this study will be able to help develop a more concrete understanding of the matter fluxes during EM.

2. Dr. Dinesh Pratap Singh

3. Professor Christine Aikens

4. Dr. Shah Kwok Wei

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