Special Issue "Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Tonino Traini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, via die Vestini,31 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: dental materials, biomaterials; mechanics of materials; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; additive manufacturing technologies; 3D-printing; clinical applications and performances of dental materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, all medical specialties, in particular dentistry, pay special attention to the innovation of materials, which can improve patients’ conditions and clinicians’ therapeutic options. The main field of application concerns the regeneration of diseased tissues or their replacement with prosthesis.  In the regenerative field, the materials must demonstrate a high biocompatibility, known as the ability of a material to be well tolerated by a living organism, with adequate biological responses even in the long term. In the prosthetic field, the materials must be biomimetic, that is, they should offer aesthetic and mechanical integration of the restorations, reaching appearance and functionality comparable to those of the natural tissues that they replace. The joint venture between biocompatibility and biomimetics is certainly the open challenge for the new materials. In regenerative medicine, the new materials, formed by nanostructured and engineered scaffolds, allow more and more innovative therapeutic modalities, able to provide the human organism with the necessary elements and the microenvironment for true bone regeneration. The newly introduced materials for prosthetic treatments present complex and modulable nanometric structures; they offer high aesthetic and functional adaptation thanks to the possibility of cementing them to residual dental tissues. Furthermore, they are compatible with the most modern technologies, allowing a standardization of the results. The forthcoming Special Issue of Materials aims to recognize the new advances in this attractive field of research. It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute your research article, communication, or review for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Tonino Traini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tissue engineering
  • Bone regeneration
  • Autologous bioactive materials
  • Biocompatibility dental materials
  • Biomimetic dental materials
  • Glass ceramics
  • Nanostructured dental ceramics
  • Adhesive dentistry
  • Computer-aided manufacturing

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Penetration of Different Impression Materials into Exposed Dentinal Tubules during the Impression Procedure
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061321 - 14 Mar 2020
Abstract
Adhesive restorations have been shown to guarantee excellent performance and longevity, although this comes with some disadvantages. Among these, the vulnerability of dentine to different agents has been widely evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible penetration of impression [...] Read more.
Adhesive restorations have been shown to guarantee excellent performance and longevity, although this comes with some disadvantages. Among these, the vulnerability of dentine to different agents has been widely evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible penetration of impression materials into freshly cut dentine. Dentine from 27 teeth was impressed with polyether (Impregum Penta L) (nine teeth) and with polyvinyl siloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV) (nine teeth). The surface of nine teeth after the impressions were used as the control. Specifically, the extroflections caused by the imprinting of the dentinal tubules on the impression material, the so-called impression tags, were measured. Furthermore, the presence of the material inside the tubules was examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed material tags for all of the experimental groups. The mean lengths (±SD) were 22.6 (±11.0) µm for polyether, 21.8 (±12.8) µm for polyvinyl siloxane and 11.3 (±7.0) µm for the tooth control, with mean diameters (±SD) of 2.8 (±0.5), 2.4 (±0.7) and 3.1 (±0.7) µm, respectively. Fractal analysis showed fractal dimensions of 1.78 (±0.03), 1.77 (±0.03) and 1.71 (±0.03), respectively. These data demonstrated that the impression materials can remain inside the dentinal tubules, which can adversely affect the adhesive procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Dentin Microhardness and Sealer Bond Strength to Root Dentin are Affected by Using Bioactive Glasses as Intracanal Medication
Materials 2020, 13(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030721 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the human dentin microhardness (MH) and the MTA Fillapex® (Fillapex) and AH Plus®(AH) bond strength (BS) to dentin after using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and bioactive glasses (45S5 and an experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass (NbG)) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the human dentin microhardness (MH) and the MTA Fillapex® (Fillapex) and AH Plus®(AH) bond strength (BS) to dentin after using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and bioactive glasses (45S5 and an experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass (NbG)) as intracanal medications. For the MH test dentin slices were filled with medications and were submitted to Knoop MH (KHN) test (at day-0 (baseline data/without medication) and at day-15 (after using medication)). For the BS test, after medications had remained for 15 days in the roots, dentin slices were obtained and filled with the sealers. Seven days later, sealer BS to dentin was measured by push-out test (MPa). Data were statistically analyzed. Failure mode was visually assessed. The use of NbG, 45S5 for 15 days, increased the dentin MH and reduced the BS between AH sealer and dentin, but did not interfere with the Fillapex BS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Nanohydroxyapatite Powder in Combination with Polylactic Acid/Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer as Bone Replacement Graft in the Surgical Treatment of Intrabony Periodontal Defects: A Retrospective Case Series Study
Materials 2020, 13(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020269 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of nanohydroxyapatite powder (NHA) in combination with polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as a bone replacement graft in the surgical treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Medical charts were screened following [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of nanohydroxyapatite powder (NHA) in combination with polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as a bone replacement graft in the surgical treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Medical charts were screened following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Periodontal parameters and periapical radiographs taken before surgery and at 12-month follow-up were collected. Intra-group comparisons were performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-five patients (13 males, 12 females, mean age 55.1 ± 10.5 years) were included in the final analysis. Mean probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) at baseline were 8.32 ± 1.41 mm and 9.96 ± 1.69 mm, respectively. Twelve months after surgery, mean PD was 4.04 ± 0.84 mm and CAL was 6.24 ± 1.71 mm. Both PD and CAL variations gave statistically significant results (p < 0.00001). The mean radiographic defect depth was 5.54 ± 1.55 mm and 1.48 ± 1.38 mm at baseline and at 12-month follow-up, respectively (p < 0.0001). This case series, with the limitations inherent in the study design, showed that the combination of NHA and PLGA, used as bone replacement graft in intrabony periodontal defects, may give significant improvements of periodontal parameters at 12-month follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of 10-MDP Based Primer on Shear Bond Strength between Zirconia and New Experimental Resin Cement
Materials 2020, 13(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010235 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
To date, numerous materials in the dental field are marketed to ensure stable adhesive cementation of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP). The aims of this study were to assess the shear bond strength of the new experimental cement Surgi Dual Flo’ Zr to Y-TZP compared [...] Read more.
To date, numerous materials in the dental field are marketed to ensure stable adhesive cementation of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP). The aims of this study were to assess the shear bond strength of the new experimental cement Surgi Dual Flo’ Zr to Y-TZP compared to Panavia V5 cement, and to evaluate the effect of 10-MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate) containing primer on their bond strength. Twenty composite cylinders and Y-TZP disks were adhesively luted and divided into four groups based on cement type used and application or not of 10-MDP. The groups (n = 5 each) were S 10MDP (Surgi Dual Flo’ Zr with 10-MDP); S no 10MDP (Surgi Dual Flo’ Zr without 10-MDP); P 10MDP (Panavia V5 with 10-MDP); P no 10MDP (Panavia V5 without 10-MDP). Maximum load resistance (ML) and shear bond strength (SBS) were tested and mode of failure qualitative documented via scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak method, and Bayesian analysis. ML and SBS were significantly higher in S 10MDP than in S no 10MDP; and in P 10MDP than in P no 10MDP (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between S 10MDP and P 10MDP; S no 10MDP and P no 10MDP (p > 0.05). Cohesive, adhesive, and mixed failure occurred among the groups. Bond strength between the experimental resin-based cement and Y-TZP was adequate for clinical application when 10-MDP was added. 10-MDP containing primer was effective improving the bond strength to Y-TZP more than the different type of resinous cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Avoidance of Interaction between Impression Materials and Tooth Surface Treated for Immediate Dentin Sealing: An In Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203454 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Immediate dentin sealing (IDS) is an advantageous approach for realizing adhesive restorations, but it interferes with the polymerization of impression material due to the oxygen-inhibition layer (OIL), which leaves residues of impression material on the teeth. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Immediate dentin sealing (IDS) is an advantageous approach for realizing adhesive restorations, but it interferes with the polymerization of impression material due to the oxygen-inhibition layer (OIL), which leaves residues of impression material on the teeth. The aim of this study is to identify a clinical surface cleaning protocol after IDS in order to achieve defect-free impressions. Sixty extracted human teeth were cut to expose fresh dentin and the IDS protocol was performed. Samples were divided into six groups where different surface cleaning protocols were made before taking impressions: G1S and G1P groups, IDS and silicone (S) or polyether (P) impressions; G2S and G2P, treatment with prophy paste and impressions; G3S and G3P, final cleaning phase with surfactant agent and impressions. Teeth were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope to identify the areas (expressed in mm2) where residual impression material was present. The results demonstrate a reduction of residues in the G2 groups and the total disappearance in G3 groups with statistically significant differences between them. Superficial cleaning protocols with the prophy paste and surfactant agent lead to the elimination of the interaction with impression materials and OIL. These results suggest a safe clinical protocol for obtaining defect-free impressions after IDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Human Clinical and Histomorphometrical Study on Different Resorbable and Non-Resorbable Bone Substitutes Used in Post-Extractive Sites. Preliminary Results
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152408 - 28 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background: The healing of sockets following teeth extraction results in a marked reduction of the height and width of the ridge. This in vivo study aims to assess and compare the efficacy of calcium sulphate (CS) and sintered nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) in postextraction sockets. [...] Read more.
Background: The healing of sockets following teeth extraction results in a marked reduction of the height and width of the ridge. This in vivo study aims to assess and compare the efficacy of calcium sulphate (CS) and sintered nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) in postextraction sockets. Materials and Methods: 10 subjects were enrolled for single or multiple tooth extraction and implant placement. Each site was randomly assigned to one of four groups and filled with CS, NHA, a combination of CS and NHA, or left to normal healing. After five months tissue samples were harvested from the extraction sites and prepared for histological investigations. Results: Histomorphometric analysis showed that the average percentages of vital bone was 13.56% ± 13.08% for CS, 17.84% ± 7.32% for NHA, 58.72% ± 8.77% for CS + NHA%, and 80.68% ± 21.8% for the controls; for the connective tissue the results were 33.25% ± 35.75% for CS, 55.88% ± 21.86% for NHA, 17.34% ± 8.51% for CS + NHA, and 22.62% ± 0.52% for the controls; for residual biomaterial the results were 0.56% ± 0.52% for CS group, 21.97% ± 0.79% for NHA, and 47.54% ± 20.13% for CS + NHA. Conclusions: Both biomaterials led to bone tissue formation after five months of healing. The combination of the biomaterials presented a better behavior when compared to the individual application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Coherence Tomography Investigations and Modeling of the Sintering of Ceramic Crowns
Materials 2019, 12(6), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060947 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dental prostheses are sintered in ovens that sometimes suffer from a loss of calibration. This can lead to variations of the sintering temperature outside the range recommended by the manufacturer. Stress and even fractures in dental ceramics may occur, and this leads to [...] Read more.
Dental prostheses are sintered in ovens that sometimes suffer from a loss of calibration. This can lead to variations of the sintering temperature outside the range recommended by the manufacturer. Stress and even fractures in dental ceramics may occur, and this leads to the necessity to rebuild the dental construct. The aim of this work is to monitor the quality of sintering processes using an established biomedical imaging technique—optical coherence tomography (OCT). Conventional current procedures imply the fabrication of supplemental samples that add to the expenses and are only evaluated visually. To our knowledge, we were the first to propose the use of OCT, a non-destructive method that brings objectivity for such assessments, focusing, in a previous study, on metal ceramic dental prostheses. Here, a different material, pressed ceramics, is considered, while we propose a quantitative assessment of the results—using reflectivity profiles of en-face (i.e., constant-depth) OCT images of sintered samples. The results for both the pressed ceramics and metal ceramics prostheses are discussed by obtaining the analytic functions of their reflectivity profiles. A multi-parametric analysis demonstrates the best parameter to characterize the loss of calibration of dental ovens. Rules-of-thumb are extracted; producing dental prostheses with defects can thus be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
IPS e.max for All-Ceramic Restorations: Clinical Survival and Success Rates of Full-Coverage Crowns and Fixed Partial Dentures
Materials 2019, 12(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030462 - 02 Feb 2019
Abstract
The IPS e.max system by Ivoclar Vivadent, offering a variety of products and indications, is widely used for all-ceramic restorations. We analyzed the clinical track record of these products in daily clinical practice, associating their restorative survival rate with various parameters to define [...] Read more.
The IPS e.max system by Ivoclar Vivadent, offering a variety of products and indications, is widely used for all-ceramic restorations. We analyzed the clinical track record of these products in daily clinical practice, associating their restorative survival rate with various parameters to define recommendations for long-term stability. A total of 1058 full-coverage crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were evaluated retrospectively over up to 66.48 (37.05 ± 18.4) months. All were made of IPS e.max Press, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.max Ceram or IPS e.max ZirPress and had been delivered by a private dental practice within three years. Uses not recommended by the manufacturer were also deliberately included. The five-year cumulative survival was 94.22% (i.e., 94.69% or 90.58% for glass-ceramic crowns or FDPs and 100% or 90.06% for zirconia-based crowns or FDPs). Significantly superior outcomes emerged for conventional vs. adhesive cementation and for vital vs. non-vital abutment teeth, but not for recommended vs. non-recommended uses. Caution is required in restoring non-vital teeth, but the spectrum of recommended uses should generally be reconsidered and expanded, given our finding of high survival and success rates for IPS e.max ceramics, even for uses not currently recommended by the manufacturer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) Applied in Bone Reconstructive Surgery Using Bovine Bone Grafts: A Systematic Review
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244051 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with biomodulatory effects on biological tissues, currently called photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), assists in healing and reduces inflammation. The application of biomaterials has emerged in bone reconstructive surgery, especially the use of bovine bone due to its [...] Read more.
The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with biomodulatory effects on biological tissues, currently called photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), assists in healing and reduces inflammation. The application of biomaterials has emerged in bone reconstructive surgery, especially the use of bovine bone due to its biocompatibility. Due to the many benefits related to the use of PBMT and bovine bones, the aim of this research was to review the literature to verify the relationship between PBMT and the application of bovine bone in bone reconstruction surgeries. We chose the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for the search by matching the keywords: “Bovine bone AND low-level laser therapy”, “Bovine bone AND photobiomodulation therapy”, “Xenograft AND low-level laser therapy”, and “Xenograft AND photobiomodulation therapy”. The initial search of the three databases retrieved 240 articles, 18 of which met all inclusion criteria. In the studies concerning animals (17 in total), there was evidence of PBMT assisting in biomaterial-related conduction, formation of new bone, bone healing, immunomarker expression, increasing collagen fibers, and local inflammation reduction. However, the results disagreed with regard to the resorption of biomaterial particles. The only human study showed that PBMT with bovine bone was effective for periodontal regeneration. It was concluded that PBMT assists the process in bone reconstruction when associated with bovine bone, despite divergences between applied protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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