Special Issue "Magnetoelastic Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Asoc. Professor, DSc., PhD. Roman Szewczyk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP / Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: magnetoelastic effect; soft magnetic materials; magnetic hysteresis models
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Among the different problems of solid state physics, the magnetoelastic effect seems to be one of those that are still not sufficiently explained. In spite of intensive experimental research since the first observation of magnetoelastic effect by Villari in 1865, the complete, quantitative model of mechanical stress dependence of magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials was not presented. Moreover, many other magnetomechanical phenomena are still not fully understood, such as:

- magnetostriction,

- Wiedemann effect,

- Matteucci effect,

- magnetovolume effect

On the other hand, during recent years, significant progress in research of magnetoelastic effect was reached. Especially, new highly magnetostrictive materials were developed, enabling practical utilization of magnetostrictive effects in actuators. Development of these actuators gave fresh impetus on magnetoeastic research focused on mechanical stress dependence of magnetic characteristics of, e.g., Terfenol-D, which are crucial for these applications. Moreover, magnetoelastic effects are very promising in non-destructive testing, enabling contactless assessment of stresses in steel. The research on magnetoelastic phenomena enabled development of numerous new types of sensors, such as magnetostrictive delay lines based for bio-medical applications.

The "Magnetoelastic Materials" Special Issue of the journal aims to act as a guide in this extensive topic, and will include both articles presenting new original results,  short communications and reviews of recent research or specific applications. Contributions can range from fundamental properties of magnetoelastic materials, their processing and characterization, as well as to innovations in processing technologies or the development of magnetomechanical applications.

Roman Szewczyk, Asoc. Professor, DSc., PhD.
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • magnetoelastic effect
  • nondestructive testing
  • magnetostriction
  • hysteresis model
  • soft magnetic materials
  • magnetomechanical effects

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Surface Magnetostriction of FeCoB Amorphous Ribbons Analyzed Using Magneto-Optical Kerr Microscopy
Materials 2020, 13(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020257 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
Surface sensitive magneto-optical Kerr microscopy completed with the special self-made sample holder is used for studying the magneto-elastic behaviour in the surface of the as-quenched amorphous Fe73Co12B15 alloy. The 10, 5, and 3 mm wide and approximately 34 [...] Read more.
Surface sensitive magneto-optical Kerr microscopy completed with the special self-made sample holder is used for studying the magneto-elastic behaviour in the surface of the as-quenched amorphous Fe73Co12B15 alloy. The 10, 5, and 3 mm wide and approximately 34 μm thick ribbons were prepared by the conventional planar flow casting process. The experimental setup allows for a simultaneous application of an external magnetic field in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the ribbon axis and of compression stress from one side of the sample, resulting in tensile stress in opposite side. The distributions of tensile stresses in the measured surface were modelled by the finite element method. The observed changes of the magnetic domains and hysteresis loop anisotropy field under applied stress are evaluated using the Becker–Kersten method. This resulted in the determination of the local surface magnetostrictive coefficient from an area of about 200 μm in diameter. The obtained values ranged between 37–60 ppm and were well comparable with the bulk value presented in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Power Losses in Bending Rolled Fully Finished NO Electrical Steel Treated under Unconventional Annealing Conditions
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132200 - 08 Jul 2019
Abstract
Currently, the non-oriented (NO) iron-silicon steels are extensively used as the core materials in various electrical devises due to excellent combination of their mechanical and soft magnetic properties. The present study introduces a fairly innovative technological approach applicable for fully finished NO electrical [...] Read more.
Currently, the non-oriented (NO) iron-silicon steels are extensively used as the core materials in various electrical devises due to excellent combination of their mechanical and soft magnetic properties. The present study introduces a fairly innovative technological approach applicable for fully finished NO electrical steel before punching the laminations. It is based on specific mechanical processing by bending and rolling in combination with subsequent annealing under dynamic heating conditions. It has been revealed that the proposed unconventional treatment clearly led to effective improvement of the steel magnetic properties thanks to its beneficial effects involving additional grain growth with appropriate crystallographic orientation and residual stress relief. The philosophy of the proposed processing was based on employing the phenomena of selective grain growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration and a steep temperature gradient through the cross-section of heat treated specimens at dynamic heating conditions. The stored deformation energy necessary for the grain growth was provided by plastic deformation induced within the studied specimens during the bending and rolling process. The magnetic measurements clearly show that the specimens treated according to our approach exhibited more than 17% decrease in watt losses in comparison with the specimens treated by conventional heat treatment leading only to stress relief without additional grain growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Unified First Order Inertial Element Based Model of Magnetostrictive Hysteresis and Lift-Off Phenomenon
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101689 - 24 May 2019
Abstract
The present paper presents a new model of magnetostrictive hysteresis loop. A unified approach of both the hysteresis of λ(B) relation, as well as the lift-off phenomenon is proposed, which are explained together on the base of the response of [...] Read more.
The present paper presents a new model of magnetostrictive hysteresis loop. A unified approach of both the hysteresis of λ(B) relation, as well as the lift-off phenomenon is proposed, which are explained together on the base of the response of the first order inertial element. Considering previously presented reports, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution based model of magnetostrictive characteristics with local maxima, enables modeling magnetostrictive loops. The model was validated on the results of measurements of magnetostrictive hysteresis loops of Mn0.70Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite for power applications. Good agreement was confirmed for major magnetostrictive loop, especially for smaller values of flux density. As a result, the proposed model may be used for modeling the magnetostrictive response of inductive components of electrical machines, power conversion devices or magnetostrictive actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Barkhausen Noise Emission in Hard-Milled Surfaces
Materials 2019, 12(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040660 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper reports on an investigation treating a hard-milled surface as a surface undergoing severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures. This surface exhibits remarkable magnetic anisotropy (expressed in term of Barkhausen noise). This paper also shows that Barkhausen noise emission in a hard-milled [...] Read more.
This paper reports on an investigation treating a hard-milled surface as a surface undergoing severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures. This surface exhibits remarkable magnetic anisotropy (expressed in term of Barkhausen noise). This paper also shows that Barkhausen noise emission in a hard-milled surface is a function of tool wear and the corresponding microstructure transformations initiated in the tool/machined surface interface. The paper discusses the specific character of Barkhausen noise bursts and the unusually high magnitude of Barkhausen noise pulses, especially at a low degree of tool wear. The main causes can be seen in specific structures and the corresponding domain configurations formed during rapid cooling following surface heating. Domains are not randomly but preferentially oriented in the direction of the cutting speed. Barkhausen noise signals (measured in two perpendicular directions such as cutting speed and feed direction) indicate that the mechanism of Bloch wall motion during cyclic magnetization in hard-milled surfaces differs from surfaces produced by grinding cycles or the raw surface after heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Torsion on Matteucci Effect Signal Parameters in Co-Based Bistable Amorphous Wire
Materials 2019, 12(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030532 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Matteucci effect (ME) is one of the lesser-known magnetomechanical effects and is most prominent in bistable amorphous wires. It has some experimental applications—Matteucci effect-based magnetic field sensors are very easy to produce and have inherently linear, hybrid analog/digital output signal. The effect [...] Read more.
The Matteucci effect (ME) is one of the lesser-known magnetomechanical effects and is most prominent in bistable amorphous wires. It has some experimental applications—Matteucci effect-based magnetic field sensors are very easy to produce and have inherently linear, hybrid analog/digital output signal. The effect is still poorly understood, however, and although it relies on torsion of the wire to manifest, there is no available model, or much experimental data, which would quantitatively connect the ME with the sample twist. In this paper, experimental characteristics of ME signal parameters dependence on torsion in Co-based amorphous bistable wire are presented. The results hint at possible applications, such as rotation or critical current sensors, as well as the necessity of torsion control in the development of ME magnetic field sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetoelastic Effect Detection with the Usage of Eddy Current Tomography
Materials 2019, 12(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030346 - 22 Jan 2019
Abstract
The possibility of application of the eddy current tomography setup to measure the small permeability variations caused by magnetoelastic effect was presented. A ferromagnetic steel sample was prepared for applying wall stresses and measured for 30 MPa stresses. The Finite Element Method (FEM) [...] Read more.
The possibility of application of the eddy current tomography setup to measure the small permeability variations caused by magnetoelastic effect was presented. A ferromagnetic steel sample was prepared for applying wall stresses and measured for 30 MPa stresses. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was utilized to conduct numerical forward tomography transformation for samples of known permeability. Developed forward tomography transformation was applied for single variable inverse tomography transformation, utilized for determining magnetic permeability. This confirmed the possibility of the application of eddy current tomography for quantitative measurements of magnetoelastic effect in samples of known geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Stress-Impedance Effect in Amorphous Ribbons with Positive and Negative Magnetostriction
Materials 2019, 12(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020275 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The SI (stress-impedance) effect in amorphous ribbons with varying magnetostriction was investigated. Iron- and cobalt-based ribbons with different magnetostriction coefficients were put under tensile stress in a dead weight tester and the impedance change was investigated in function of applied stresses. Significant differences [...] Read more.
The SI (stress-impedance) effect in amorphous ribbons with varying magnetostriction was investigated. Iron- and cobalt-based ribbons with different magnetostriction coefficients were put under tensile stress in a dead weight tester and the impedance change was investigated in function of applied stresses. Significant differences of characteristics are presented. Stress-impedance analog of Villari reversal point was observed. The reversal point showed driving current frequency dependence, in which this point manifests for different stress values. Based on the obtained SI characteristics and magnetoelastic hysteresis, the most appropriate stress-sensing material was selected for development of precise small forces sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Size-Dependent and Multi-Field Coupling Behavior of Layered Multiferroic Nanocomposites
Materials 2019, 12(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020260 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The prediction of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in nano-scaled multiferroic composites is significant for nano-devices. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear multi-field coupling model for ME effect in layered multiferroic nanocomposites based on the surface stress model, strain gradient theory and nonlinear magneto-elastic-thermal [...] Read more.
The prediction of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in nano-scaled multiferroic composites is significant for nano-devices. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear multi-field coupling model for ME effect in layered multiferroic nanocomposites based on the surface stress model, strain gradient theory and nonlinear magneto-elastic-thermal coupling constitutive relation. With this novel model, the influence of external fields on strain gradient and flexoelectricity is discussed for the first time. Meanwhile, a comprehensive investigation on the influence of size-dependent parameters and multi-field conditions on ME performance is made. The numerical results show that ME coupling is remarkably size-dependent as the thickness of the composites reduces to nanoscale. Especially, the ME coefficient is enhanced by either surface effect or flexoelectricity. The strain gradient in composites at the nano-scale is significant and influenced by the external stimuli at different levels via the change in materials’ properties. More importantly, due to the nonlinear multi-field coupling behavior of ferromagnetic materials, appropriate compressive stress and temperature may improve the value of ME coefficient and reduce the required magnetic field. This paper provides a theoretical basis to analyze and evaluate multi-field coupling characteristics of nanostructure-based ME devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Model of the Magnetostrictive Hysteresis Loop with Local Maximum
Materials 2019, 12(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010105 - 30 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents a model of the magnetostrictive hysteresis loop with local maximum. The model is based on the differential equations describing magnetostriction due to the domain wall movement as well as domain magnetization rotation. The transition between these mechanisms of magnetization is [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model of the magnetostrictive hysteresis loop with local maximum. The model is based on the differential equations describing magnetostriction due to the domain wall movement as well as domain magnetization rotation. The transition between these mechanisms of magnetization is quantified by the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Moreover, the lift-off phenomenon in the magnetostrictive hysteresis loop is considered. The proposed model was validated on the results of measurements of magnetostrictive hysteresis loops of Mn0.70Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite for power application and 13CrMo4-5 construction steel. The results of modeling confirm that the proposed model corresponds well with experimental results. Good agreement was confirmed by determination coefficient R2, which exceeded 0.995 and 0.985 for Mn0.70Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite for power application and 13CrMo4-5 construction steel, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Applications and Advances of Magnetoelastic Sensors in Biomedical Engineering: A Review
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071135 - 07 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
We present a comprehensive investigation into magnetoelastic sensors (MES) technology applied to biomedical engineering. This includes the working principles, detection methods, and application fields of MES technology. MES are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons and are wireless and passive, meaning that it [...] Read more.
We present a comprehensive investigation into magnetoelastic sensors (MES) technology applied to biomedical engineering. This includes the working principles, detection methods, and application fields of MES technology. MES are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons and are wireless and passive, meaning that it is convenient to monitor or measure the parameters related to biomedical engineering. MES are based on the inverse magnetoelastic (Villari) effect. When MES are subjected to mechanical stress, their magnetic susceptibility will change accordingly. And the susceptibility of MES is directly related to their magnetic permeability. The varying permeability can positively reflect the applied stress. The various detection methods that have been developed for different field applications include measurement of force, stress, and strain, monitoring of various chemical indexes, and consideration of different biomedical parameters such as the degradation rate and force conditions of artificial bone, as well as various physiological indexes including ammonia level, glucose concentration, bacteria growth, and blood coagulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
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