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Materials 2019, 12(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020260

Size-Dependent and Multi-Field Coupling Behavior of Layered Multiferroic Nanocomposites

1,2,* and 1
1
School of Mechano-Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710071, China
2
Research Center for Applied Mechanics, Xidian University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetoelastic Materials)
PDF [1593 KB, uploaded 14 January 2019]

Abstract

The prediction of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in nano-scaled multiferroic composites is significant for nano-devices. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear multi-field coupling model for ME effect in layered multiferroic nanocomposites based on the surface stress model, strain gradient theory and nonlinear magneto-elastic-thermal coupling constitutive relation. With this novel model, the influence of external fields on strain gradient and flexoelectricity is discussed for the first time. Meanwhile, a comprehensive investigation on the influence of size-dependent parameters and multi-field conditions on ME performance is made. The numerical results show that ME coupling is remarkably size-dependent as the thickness of the composites reduces to nanoscale. Especially, the ME coefficient is enhanced by either surface effect or flexoelectricity. The strain gradient in composites at the nano-scale is significant and influenced by the external stimuli at different levels via the change in materials’ properties. More importantly, due to the nonlinear multi-field coupling behavior of ferromagnetic materials, appropriate compressive stress and temperature may improve the value of ME coefficient and reduce the required magnetic field. This paper provides a theoretical basis to analyze and evaluate multi-field coupling characteristics of nanostructure-based ME devices.
Keywords: multiferroic nanocomposites; magnetoelectric effect; flexoelectricity; multi-field coupling multiferroic nanocomposites; magnetoelectric effect; flexoelectricity; multi-field coupling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shi, Y.; Wang, Y. Size-Dependent and Multi-Field Coupling Behavior of Layered Multiferroic Nanocomposites. Materials 2019, 12, 260.

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