Special Issue "Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Photonics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Piotr Lesiak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa, POLAND
Interests: My current research interests include propagation, spectral and polarization properties of optical fibers, liquid crystals and photonic (liquid) crystal fibers; optical fiber sensors systems embedded in composite materials; metamaterials, nanomaterials, and optofluidics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonics is closely related to the technology of generating and using light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. Photonics involves a wide range of applications of lasers, optics, solid-state lighting, fiber optics, electro-optical devices, and inter alia photonic sensors.

The aim of this Special Issue is the presentation of recent advances in photonic sensors, based on different configurations and materials that can be used in numerous and diverse fields of technology as alternate energy, manufacturing, health care, telecommunication, environmental monitoring, homeland security, and aerospace.

Applications of the photonic sensors may cover many areas, ranging from new concepts still experienced in laboratories to sensing systems to be made available on the market, even in highly differentiated sectors, such as biomedicine and biotechnology, micro- and nanotechnology, construction and engineering, alternate energy and green solutions, chemical technology, transportation, gas sensing, defense, space, and so on.

We kindly invite you to submit a manuscript(s) for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews will be more than welcome.

Prof. Piotr Lesiak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensors
  • Photonics
  • Plasmonics
  • Nanomaterials
  • Liquid crystals
  • Optofluidics
  • Security
  • Optical fiber sensors
  • Environmental monitoring

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Characterization of Graphite Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Obtained from Different Graphite Precursors and Oxidized by Different Methods Using Raman Spectroscopy Statistical Analysis
Materials 2021, 14(4), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040769 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
In this paper, various graphite oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) preparation methods are analyzed. The obtained materials differed in their properties, including (among others) their oxygen contents. The chemical and structural properties of graphite, graphite oxides, and reduced graphene oxides were [...] Read more.
In this paper, various graphite oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) preparation methods are analyzed. The obtained materials differed in their properties, including (among others) their oxygen contents. The chemical and structural properties of graphite, graphite oxides, and reduced graphene oxides were previously investigated using Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In this paper, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to trace the directions of changes of the selected parameters relative to a preparation method of such oxides. We showed that the oxidation methods affected the physicochemical properties of the final products. The aim of the research was the statistical analysis of the selected properties in order to use this information to design graphene oxide materials with properties relevant for specific applications (i.e., in gas sensors). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermo-Optical Switching Effect Based on a Tapered Optical Fiber and Higher Alkanes Doped with ZnS:Mn
Materials 2020, 13(21), 5044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215044 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The paper investigates the effect of thermo-optic switching resulting from the hybrid combination of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with alkanes doped with nanoparticles of zinc sulfide doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn NP). Presented measurements focused on controlling losses in an optical fiber by [...] Read more.
The paper investigates the effect of thermo-optic switching resulting from the hybrid combination of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with alkanes doped with nanoparticles of zinc sulfide doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn NP). Presented measurements focused on controlling losses in an optical fiber by modification of a TOF cladding by the alkanes used, characterized by phase change. Temperature changes cause power transmission changes creating a switcher or a sensor working in an ON-OFF mode. Phase change temperatures and changes in the refractive index of the alkane used directly affected power switching. Alkanes were doped with ZnS:Mn NPs to change the hysteresis observed between ON-OFF modes in pure alkanes. The addition of nanoparticles (NPs) reduces the difference between phase changes due to improved thermal conductivity and introduces extra nucleating agents. Results are presented in the wide optical range of 550–1200 nm. In this investigation, hexadecane and heptadecane were a new cladding for TOF. The higher alkanes were doped with ZnS: Mn NPs in an alkane volume of 1 wt.% and 5 wt.%. The thermo-optic effect can be applied to manufacture a thermo-optic switcher or a temperature threshold sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
SPR Effect Controlled by an Electric Field in a Tapered Optical Fiber Surrounded by a Low Refractive Index Nematic Liquid Crystal
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214942 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
This paper presents the influence of a thin metal layer deposition on the surface of a tapered optical fiber surrounded by a low liquid crystal, on light propagation inside the taper structure. In this research, three types of liquid crystal cells were under [...] Read more.
This paper presents the influence of a thin metal layer deposition on the surface of a tapered optical fiber surrounded by a low liquid crystal, on light propagation inside the taper structure. In this research, three types of liquid crystal cells were under investigation: orthogonal, parallel, and twist. They differed by the rubbing direction of the electrodes in relation to the fiber axis determining the initial molecule arrangement inside the cell. Gold films with thickness d = 30 nm were deposited on the tapered fiber surface in the tapered waist area. Cells including a tapered optical fiber with no metallic layer were also examined and presented as a reference. All measurements were performed at room temperature for a different steering voltage U from 0 to 200 V, with and without any amplitude modulation with a frequency f = 5 Hz, and the wavelength λ range from 550 to 1200 nm. As a result, the resonant peaks were obtained, which depends on a liquid crystal cell type and steering voltage, as well. This paper shows the possibility of sensing the change of applied voltage by the constructed system. During measurements, additional effects as signal overlapping and intermodal interference were observed reducing measured voltage value. In the future, the improved, similar systems that will have a better response could be used as a sensor of factors to which liquid crystal (LC) will be sensitive, especially temperature and electric field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Luminescent Studies on Germanate Glasses Doped with Europium Ions for Photonic Applications
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122817 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
Glass and ceramic materials doped with rare earth (RE) ions have gained wide interest in photonics as active materials for lasers, optical amplifiers, and luminescent sensors. The emission properties of RE-doped glasses depend on their chemical composition, but they can also be tailored [...] Read more.
Glass and ceramic materials doped with rare earth (RE) ions have gained wide interest in photonics as active materials for lasers, optical amplifiers, and luminescent sensors. The emission properties of RE-doped glasses depend on their chemical composition, but they can also be tailored by modifying the surrounding active ions. Typically, this is achieved through heat treatment (including continuous-wave and pulsed lasers) after establishing the ordering mechanisms in the particular glass–RE system. Within the known systems, silicate glasses predominate, while much less work relates to materials with lower energy phonons, which allow more efficient radiation sources to be constructed for photonic applications. In the present work, the luminescent and structural properties of germanate glasses modified with phosphate oxide doped with Eu3+ ions were investigated. Europium dopant was used as a “spectroscopic probe” in order to analyze the luminescence spectra, which characterizes the changes in the local site symmetries of Eu3+ ions. Based on the spectroscopic results, a strong influence of P2O5 content was observed on the excitation and luminescence spectra. The luminescence study of the most intense 5D07F2 (electric dipole) transition revealed that the increase in the P2O5 content leads to the linewidth reduction (from 15 nm to 10 nm) and the blue shift (~2 nm) of the emission peak. According to the crystal field theory, the introduction of P2O5 into the glass structure changes the splitting number of sublevels of the 5D07F1 (magnetic dipole) transition, confirming the higher polymerization of fabricated glass. The slightly different local environment of Eu3+ centers the results in a number of sites and causes inhomogeneous broadening of spectral lines. It was found that the local asymmetry ratio estimated by the relation of (5D07F2)/(5D07F1) transitions also confirms greater changes in local symmetry around Eu3+ ions. Our results indicate that modification of germanate glass by P2O5 allows control of their structural properties in order to functionalize the emissions for application as luminescent light sources and sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of the Surface Plasmon–Polariton Resonance in a Metal Grating, as a Sensitive Element of Refractive Index Change
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081882 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
The resonant excitation of surface plasmon–polariton waves in metal gratings with rectangular and sinusoidal relief was studied. The main characteristics of the resonant excitation of a surface plasmon–polariton wave were obtained using analytical methods due to the fact that the resonance is excited [...] Read more.
The resonant excitation of surface plasmon–polariton waves in metal gratings with rectangular and sinusoidal relief was studied. The main characteristics of the resonant excitation of a surface plasmon–polariton wave were obtained using analytical methods due to the fact that the resonance is excited at a grating thickness much smaller than a wavelength (1.064 µm). It is shown that the obtained results are very close to those calculated using numerical methods, e.g., Rigorous Coupled Wave Approach (RCWA). There is a small difference in the numerical data defined by both methods. The difference between the parameters for the two types of gratings is small. New analytical relationships of angular and spectral sensitivities with the change of the refractive index of the medium were obtained, depending on the grating period and the angle of incidence of the light beam. An analytical relationship between the spectral and angular widths of the resonant curves, at full width at half maximum, was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Technology of Polymer Microtips’ Manufacturing on the Ends of Multi-Mode Optical Fibers
Materials 2020, 13(2), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020416 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
The technology of polymer microtips’ manufacturing on the ends of selected multi-mode fibers has been reported. The study’s key element was an extended description of technology parameters’ influence on the shape of these 3D microstructures. Basic technology parameters such as spectral characteristics of [...] Read more.
The technology of polymer microtips’ manufacturing on the ends of selected multi-mode fibers has been reported. The study’s key element was an extended description of technology parameters’ influence on the shape of these 3D microstructures. Basic technology parameters such as spectral characteristics of the light source, monomer mixture type, optical power, and exposure time were taken under consideration. Depending on those parameters, different shapes, sizes, and surface structures of microtips were obtained. The spectral characteristics of the light and optical power delivered to a monomer drop were identified as the most important parameters for the formation of the desired 3D shape of the microtip. Presented experimental results are the base for further studies directed to the application of these micro-elements in the fields of optical measurements and sensors’ technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Fibre Bragg Grating Based Acoustic Emission Measurement System for Structural Health Monitoring Applications
Materials 2021, 14(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040897 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 450
Abstract
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based acoustic emission (AE) detection and monitoring is considered as a potential and emerging technology for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this paper, an overview of the FBG-based AE monitoring system is presented, and various technologies and methods used [...] Read more.
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based acoustic emission (AE) detection and monitoring is considered as a potential and emerging technology for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this paper, an overview of the FBG-based AE monitoring system is presented, and various technologies and methods used for FBG AE interrogation systems are reviewed and discussed. Various commercial FBG AE sensing systems, SHM applications of FBG AE monitoring, and market potential and recent trends are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Laser-Based Trace Gas Detection inside Hollow-Core Fibers: A Review
Materials 2020, 13(18), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13183983 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Thanks to the guidance of an optical wave in air, hollow-core fibers may serve as sampling cells in an optical spectroscopic system. This paper reviews applications of hollow-core optical fibers to laser-based gas sensing. Three types of hollow-core fibers are discussed: Hollow capillary [...] Read more.
Thanks to the guidance of an optical wave in air, hollow-core fibers may serve as sampling cells in an optical spectroscopic system. This paper reviews applications of hollow-core optical fibers to laser-based gas sensing. Three types of hollow-core fibers are discussed: Hollow capillary waveguides, photonic band-gap fibers, and negative curvature fibers. Their advantages and drawbacks when used for laser-based trace gas detection are analyzed. Various examples of experimental sensing systems demonstrated in the literature over the past 20 years are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Hybrid Fiber Optic Sensor Systems in Structural Health Monitoring in Aircraft Structures
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102249 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
‘Smart’ structural health monitoring of composite materials with optical fiber sensors is becoming more and more important, especially in the aviation industry. This paper presents an overview of hybrid fiber-optic sensing systems based on scattering techniques, fiber Bragg gratings, interferometric techniques, and polarimetric [...] Read more.
‘Smart’ structural health monitoring of composite materials with optical fiber sensors is becoming more and more important, especially in the aviation industry. This paper presents an overview of hybrid fiber-optic sensing systems based on scattering techniques, fiber Bragg gratings, interferometric techniques, and polarimetric methods in structural health monitoring. The main purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the possibilities of using hybrid sensors based on fiber optics to monitor composite structures, with a particular emphasis on aircraft structures. Since it is difficult to indicate the most comprehensive approach due to different parameters of the described sensors, the review contains a detailed description of available solutions. We hope that this work will allow for a better and faster selection of the right solution for the problem at hand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photonic Sensors)
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