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Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanics of Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2024) | Viewed by 12977

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to announce this Special Issue of Materials, entitled "Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement".

With the advancement in modern materials, the relationship between mechanical behavior and novel material properties has become a critical issue in the field of engineering design and development.

Thanks to the recent development of computational power and data storage, the multiscale modelling analysis has become available for the mechanical behavior study of material elements from the macroscopic, micro- and nanoscale approached to the characterization of materials.

Moreover, novel developments of nondestructive, optical, acoustic and image processing methods, etc., have actualized the mechanical characterization and application in view of their capability to accurately measure displacements, strains and stresses in real time and to gather full-field information without altering object conditions, making them fundamentally useful in complex fields such as bioengineering, MEMS, high-precision metrology, etc.

This Special Issue aims to focus on advances in the multiscale “Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement”. The goal is to provide a forum on the state-of-the-art and frontier applications for modelling and characterization. Submissions should be in the form of original research articles or authoritative review papers on the following, nonexhaustive, list of topics:

  • Advancements in finite element methods;
  • Meshless method;
  • AI and machine learning;
  • Mechanics of nanomaterials;
  • Complex and emerging materials;
  • Photoelasticity and interferometry applications;
  • Image processing methods;
  • DIC method and its applications;
  • Multiscale and novel developments in nondestructive methods;
  • Mechanics of materials and constitutive models;
  • Bioengineering and biomechanics;
  • Aerospace and aeronautical engineering;
  • High-precision metrology for machine tools and robot TCP. 

Prof. Dr. Ming-Tzer Lin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 11254 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Stress–Strain Characteristics in DP 600 and TRIP 400/700 Steel Sheets
by Emil Evin, Miroslav Tomáš and Stanislav Németh
Materials 2024, 17(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010210 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
The body constitutes the largest proportion of the total vehicle weight. Recently, increasing efforts have been made towards reducing its weight and improving its crashworthiness. By reducing its weight, fuel consumption will be reduced, and this will also translate into lower CO2 [...] Read more.
The body constitutes the largest proportion of the total vehicle weight. Recently, increasing efforts have been made towards reducing its weight and improving its crashworthiness. By reducing its weight, fuel consumption will be reduced, and this will also translate into lower CO2 emissions. In terms of safety, vehicle body components use high strength steel which can absorb a substantial amount of impact energy. The present study pays attention to DP 600 and TRIP 400/700 stress–strain characteristics at quasi-static strain rates. The stress–strain characteristics of absorption capacity, stiffness, and deformation resistance force were investigated experimentally by tensile tests, three-point bending tests, and numerical simulations. The results indicate the potential for increasing the absorption capacity, stiffness, and deformation resistance force of the vehicle body’s deformable steel components. The present study verified the possibility of replacing physical testing with numerical simulation. A reasonably satisfactory agreement between the experimentally determined stress–strain characteristics and the numerical simulation was achieved, which can reduce the development time of deformable vehicle body components, reduce costs and optimize the selection of materials. The results extend the state of knowledge on the deformation characteristics of high-strength materials and contribute to the optimization of body components in terms of passive safety and weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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20 pages, 4762 KiB  
Article
Study on the Internal Stress and Thermal Anisotropy in Magnesium Alloys Using a Thermal Elastic Viscoplastic Self-Consistent Model
by Xianyun Zhu, Huamiao Wang and Yunxin Wu
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227097 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 705
Abstract
A thermal elastic viscoplastic self-consistent model is utilized to examine the thermal stress induced by the thermal anisotropy of single crystals during heat treatments. This model considers temperature-dependent elastic constants and critical resolved shear stress associated with thermal dilation. Simulation results demonstrate that [...] Read more.
A thermal elastic viscoplastic self-consistent model is utilized to examine the thermal stress induced by the thermal anisotropy of single crystals during heat treatments. This model considers temperature-dependent elastic constants and critical resolved shear stress associated with thermal dilation. Simulation results demonstrate that under cooling, the elastic lattice strain increases significantly when constrained compared to unconstrained cooling. The deformation mechanism observed under cooling with constraint resembles tension along the constrained direction at room temperature. Polycrystals offer more deformation mechanisms to accommodate thermal anisotropy compared to single crystals, resulting in lower applied stress at the constrained boundary. Among the various observed textures, the maximum amplitude of residual lattice strain follows the following order: rolled > extruded > random. Lower thermal anisotropy in the entire polycrystal structure leads to reduced internal stress. For a single crystal within aggregates, the {00.2} plane experiences tensile lattice strain, while the {10.0} and {11.0} planes undergo compressive lattice strain due to the greater contraction of single crystals along the <c> direction compared to the <a> direction during cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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10 pages, 3736 KiB  
Communication
Honeycomb Column Thin-Walled Structure Design and Mechanical Properties of Ti Alloy Fabricated through Selective Laser Melting
by Shenghua Zhang, Jingshuai Shi, Bin Liu and Zhonghua Li
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196552 - 4 Oct 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
A honeycomb column thin-walled structure (HCTS) was designed and the relative density was calculated for numerical simulation. The HCTS samples were fabricated via selective laser melting (SLM). The numerical simulation and a three-point bending test were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
A honeycomb column thin-walled structure (HCTS) was designed and the relative density was calculated for numerical simulation. The HCTS samples were fabricated via selective laser melting (SLM). The numerical simulation and a three-point bending test were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the HCTS made of Ti6Al4V. The findings of the numerical simulation demonstrated that the HCTS had a stronger resistance to deformation and a maximum loading force 30% higher than the equivalent solid thin-walled structure (ESTS). The mechanical performance of the HCTS as determined by the three-point bending test was mostly comparable with the numerical simulation. The maximum loading force of the experimental HCTS050-E thin-walled structure was 1200 N higher than that of HCTS050-S. The numerical simulation can provide theoretical guidance for the SLM processing of HCTSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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16 pages, 5872 KiB  
Article
A Micromechanical-Based Semi-Empirical Model for Predicting the Compressive Strength Degradation of Concrete under External Sulfate Attack
by Shagang Li, Xiaotong Yu, Shanyin Yang, Hongxiang Wang and Da Chen
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165542 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
As one of the most harmful ions in the environment, sulfate could cause the deformation and material deterioration of concrete structures. Models that accurately describe the whole chemo–transport–mechanical process of an external sulfate attack (ESA) require substantial computational work and contain complex parameters. [...] Read more.
As one of the most harmful ions in the environment, sulfate could cause the deformation and material deterioration of concrete structures. Models that accurately describe the whole chemo–transport–mechanical process of an external sulfate attack (ESA) require substantial computational work and contain complex parameters. This paper proposes a semi-empirical model based on micromechanical theory for predicting the compressive strength degradation of concrete under an ESA with basic properties of the undamaged material and limited computational effort. A simplified exponential function is developed for the total amount of the invading sulfate, and a second-order equation governs the chemical reaction. A micromechanical model is implemented to solve the mechanical response caused by an ESA. The model is able to describe the compressive stress–strain behavior of concrete subject to uniaxial loading in good agreement with the experimental results. For the case of a sulfate-attacked material, the relationship between compressive strength and expansion is calculated and validated by the test results. Finally, the deterioration process of compressive strength is predicted with the test results of deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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14 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
The Flow Stress Behavior and Physical-Based Constitutive Model for As-Quenched Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy
by Ruichao Guo, Dandan Liang and Guohua Qin
Materials 2023, 16(14), 4982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16144982 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
Although heat-treatable Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries, distortion and cracks exist due to the residual stress during quenching. Understanding the flow stress behavior and numerically modeling the process is the key to predicting the residual stress. This paper investigated the [...] Read more.
Although heat-treatable Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries, distortion and cracks exist due to the residual stress during quenching. Understanding the flow stress behavior and numerically modeling the process is the key to predicting the residual stress. This paper investigated the flow stress behavior of the as-quenched 7050 alloy at strain rates from 0.1 s−1 to 1 s−1, temperatures between 423 K and 723 K, and cooling rates from 0.1 K/s to 10 K/s. The experimental results showed that the strain rate, cooling rate, and temperature have effects on the flow stress value, except for the cooling rates at a temperature of 423 K or 723 K. The kinetics model was used to obtain the precipitate features, i.e., precipitate size and volume fraction. Then, a physical constitutive model based on the evolution of immobile dislocation, solutes, and precipitates was developed. The predicted flow stresses showed good agreement with the experimental data. The findings of this work expand the knowledge on the as-quenched flow behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, improving the prediction accuracy of residual stress by FEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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17 pages, 7007 KiB  
Article
Experiment for Measuring Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Steel Sheets under Cyclic Loading by V-Shaped Double-Shear-Zone Specimens
by Geng Yan, Yanli Lin, Shuo Wang, Enqi Xu, Zhubin He, Kelin Chen and Shijian Yuan
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134645 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
The simple shear test shows significant advantages when measuring the hardening and shear properties of thin sheet metal at large strains. However, previous shear tests had an end effect caused by local stress concentration and a boundary effect caused by deformation overflow, resulting [...] Read more.
The simple shear test shows significant advantages when measuring the hardening and shear properties of thin sheet metal at large strains. However, previous shear tests had an end effect caused by local stress concentration and a boundary effect caused by deformation overflow, resulting in non-uniform strain distribution in the shear zone. Therefore, a unique V-shaped double-shear-zone specimen is proposed to measure the Bauschinger effect under cyclic shear loading conditions in this paper. Simple shear experiments and three different types of cycle shear experiments are conducted to analyze the uniformity of deformation in the shear zone and the effect of pre-strain and the number of cyclic loads on the Bauschinger effect of Q890 high-strength steel sheets. The results indicate that the proposed V-shaped double-shear-zone specimen can still maintain uniform shear deformation in forward/reverse cyclic loading experiments, even at large strains. Q890 high-strength steel exhibits a significant Bauschinger effect, which is more pronounced with the increase in shear pre-strain and loading cycles. The results of this paper provide a new approach for studying the hardening characteristics under large strain and the mechanical properties under cyclic shear loading for metal sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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17 pages, 7854 KiB  
Article
A Post-Processing Method Based on Radial Basis Functions for the Fast Retrieval of the Strain Field in Digital Image Correlation Methods
by Corrado Groth, Andrea Chiappa, Stefano Porziani, Marco Evangelos Biancolini, Emanuele Marotta and Pietro Salvini
Materials 2022, 15(22), 7936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15227936 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Digital image correlation methods allow the determination of the displacement (and thus the strain) field of a target by picture comparisons, without the application of strain gauges or other invasive devices. Homologous sites are mapped from the undeformed to the deformed configuration, and [...] Read more.
Digital image correlation methods allow the determination of the displacement (and thus the strain) field of a target by picture comparisons, without the application of strain gauges or other invasive devices. Homologous sites are mapped from the undeformed to the deformed configuration, and displacements retrieved at a cloud of points in a scattered fashion. Radial basis functions (RBF) offer a rapid and reliable tool to post-process on-the-fly data from image correlation, in order to compute deformations directly without the need for generating a numerical grid over the measurement points. Displacements and associated strains can be computed only where desired, tracking automatically only the most reliable features for each image. In this work, a post-processing strain evaluation method for large displacement problems, based on RBF and the Green–Lagrange tensor, is presented and demonstrated for several test cases. At first, the proposed method is adopted on a set of artificially generated pictures, demonstrating a faster convergence with respect to FEM even when few points are used. Finally, the approach is applied to cases for which experimental results are available in the literature, exhibiting a good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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22 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
Liquid Moisture Transport in Cotton Woven Fabrics with Different Weft Yarns
by Małgorzata Matusiak and Dominika Kamińska
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186489 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Moisture transport in fabrics influences the thermal comfort of clothing due to drainage of sweat secreted by the human body. The moisture transport through textile materials takes place in two ways: water-vapor transport and liquid moisture transport. Both ways are equally important. In [...] Read more.
Moisture transport in fabrics influences the thermal comfort of clothing due to drainage of sweat secreted by the human body. The moisture transport through textile materials takes place in two ways: water-vapor transport and liquid moisture transport. Both ways are equally important. In the present work, liquid moisture transport in cotton woven fabrics with different weft yarns was investigated. Measurement was done using the Moisture Management Tester MMT M290. The obtained results confirmed that the linear density of weft yarn significantly influenced the values of all parameters characterizing liquid moisture transport in the investigated fabrics. The best performance in liquid moisture transport was achieved by weft yarn of linear density 30 tex. For this fabric variant, the maximum wetted radius for both surfaces was the biggest: 25 mm for the inner and 26.6 mm for the outer surface of the fabric. This means that the fabric spread the liquid on the biggest area compared to the other variants being investigated to facilitate an evaporation of liquid sweat. The fabric variant with 30 tex weft yarn showed the highest spreading speed: 5.83 mm/s for both sides, and the shortest wetting time: 2.83 s for the inner and 3.00 s for the outer side of the fabric. The higher the linear density of weft yarn, the worse the ability of cotton woven fabrics to ensure liquid moisture transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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18 pages, 8498 KiB  
Article
The Mechanical Properties of Gangue Paste Material for Deep Mines: An Experimental and Model Study
by Qiang Leng, Qingliang Chang, Yuantian Sun, Biao Zhang and Jianzhuang Qin
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175904 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Gangue paste material is mainly composed of coal gangue with particle size, which is mixed with cement. Fly ash and additives can be added to change its performance. In this paper, the influence of each component on the mechanical properties of gangue paste [...] Read more.
Gangue paste material is mainly composed of coal gangue with particle size, which is mixed with cement. Fly ash and additives can be added to change its performance. In this paper, the influence of each component on the mechanical properties of gangue paste material was studied by an orthogonal experiment. The conversion relationship among various indexes of mechanical properties of gangue paste material and the response surface prediction model were discussed. The results show that the mechanical properties of gangue paste materials are positively correlated with the content of cement, the content of fly ash and the mass concentration, which increase with the increase of the three factors, and show the primary and secondary relationship of the content of cement > the content of fly ash > the mass concentration. A response surface prediction model of mechanical property parameters is established, which includes the first order term of the influencing factors of gangue paste material and the first order interaction term between any two factors. In the response surface prediction model of uniaxial compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, cohesion and elastic modulus, the goodness of fit test coefficients are 0.998, 0.957, 0.970 and 0.997, respectively, which proves that the model has good goodness of fit. The research results provide basic parameters for paste filling mining practice, and also provide the basis for numerical simulation of filling body value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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12 pages, 4890 KiB  
Article
Research on Soft Rock Damage Softening Model and Roadway Deformation and Failure Characteristics
by Chunlin Zeng, Yuejin Zhou, Yuhang Xiao, Xin Zhou, Chaobin Zhu and Yunong Xu
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175886 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
To determine a reasonable control strategy for deep buried soft rock roadways, a study on deformation and failure characteristics was carried out. The Weibull distribution damage variable was introduced to construct a damage-softening model considering the lateral deformation of the rock mass, and [...] Read more.
To determine a reasonable control strategy for deep buried soft rock roadways, a study on deformation and failure characteristics was carried out. The Weibull distribution damage variable was introduced to construct a damage-softening model considering the lateral deformation of the rock mass, and the functional relationship between the model parameters F0 and m and the confining pressure were discussed. The nonlinear fitting method was used to correct the model parameters. Using the model, the failure characteristics of deep buried soft rock roadways were analyzed. A comprehensive and step-by-step joint support control strategy was proposed based on the numerical simulation results. The research results showed that the damage-softening model curve established could genuinely reflect the whole process of mudstone failure. The apparent stress concentration phenomenon occurred in the surrounding rock. The surrounding rock deformation showed that roadway floors had larger plastic failure areas than sides and vaults. The plastic failure depth could reach 2.45 m. After a comprehensive and step-by-step joint support control strategy was adopted, the deformation rate of the roadway at the section was less than 0.1 mm/d. The optimized support scheme can effectively improve the stability of the roadway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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13 pages, 2669 KiB  
Article
Wettability and Surface Roughness of Parylene C on Three-Dimensional-Printed Photopolymers
by Fan-Chun Hsieh, Chien-Yao Huang and Yen-Pei Lu
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124159 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The use of poly-(para-chloro-xylylene) (Parylene C) in microelectromechanical systems and medical devices has increased rapidly. However, little research has been conducted on the wettability and surface roughness of Parylene C after being soaked in solutions. In this study, the contact angle and surface [...] Read more.
The use of poly-(para-chloro-xylylene) (Parylene C) in microelectromechanical systems and medical devices has increased rapidly. However, little research has been conducted on the wettability and surface roughness of Parylene C after being soaked in solutions. In this study, the contact angle and surface roughness (arithmetic average of roughness) of Parylene C on three-dimensional (3D)-printed photopolymer in 10% sodium hydroxide, 10% ammonium hydroxide, and 100% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions were investigated using a commercial contact angle measurement system and laser confocal microscope, respectively. The collected data indicated that 10% ammonium hydroxide had no major effect on the contact angle of Parylene C on a substrate, with a Shore A hardness of 50. However, 10% sodium hydroxide, 10% ammonium hydroxide, and 100% PBS considerably affected the contact angle of Parylene C on a substrate with a Shore A hardness of 85. Substrates with Parylene C coating exhibited lower surface roughness than uncoated substrates. The substrates coated with Parylene C that were soaked in 10% ammonium hydroxide exhibited high surface roughness. The aforementioned results indicate that 3D-printed photopolymers coated with Parylene C can offer potential benefits when used in biocompatible devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behaviors of Materials: Modelling and Measurement)
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