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Special Issue "Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanostructure Modifications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022) | Viewed by 4151

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Olga E. Glukhova
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Saratov 410012, Russia
2. Institute for Bionic Technologies and Engineering, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Interests: nanoelectronics; computational material science; electrical conduction; DFT/DFTB calculation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon nanostructures and their modifications have penetrated into all spheres of human activity, because at the end of the 20th century, they first radically changed electronics, giving rise to nanoelectronics, and then «cut a window» for new biomedical technologies. Carbon nanotube-based highly stretchable transparent conductive thin films are promising and are actively being introduced in the field of wearable electronics and biometric sensors, designed to save lives, diagnosing and preventing pathological processes in time. Laser-processed carbon nanotubes form branched 3D structures (carbon matrices), on the basis of which protein and polymer matrices are created. These new biocompatible composite nanomaterials are used for the proliferation of neuronal, cartilage, and bone cells, as well as in tissue engineering as implants with increased strength, as well as the basis of artificial muscles. Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) structures and their reduced forms are already being used for electrical identification of DNA, anticancer therapy, as functional drug delivery carriers, and bioimaging. New graphene/CNT-based composites allow not only manufacturing nanofilters, but also electrochemical biosensors as a means of express detection of toxins in the event of water pollution. The recently obtained convincing evidence of the nontoxicity of fullerenes and even their positive effect on human health opens new perspectives for their use in pharmacology and drug delivery. The great advantage of fullerenes over other allotropic carbon phases is their high capacity for functionalization. The discovery of new unique properties of carbon nanostructure modifications and the identification of the most optimal and effective nanomaterials based on graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and other carbon nanostructures is a very important area that requires new ideas and new theoretical and technological searches and solutions.

This Special Issue highlights new ideas about the creation and use of carbon nanostructure-based nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. New technological solutions to improve the characteristics of existing and already used carbon nanomaterials are also being proposed. New approaches to the study of properties and the discovery of new unique features of carbon nanostructures from the standpoint of the expansion of their biomedical applications are considered.

I am pleased to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, reports, and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Olga E. Glukhova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biocompatible composite based on graphene and carbon nanotube
  • functionalized fullerenes
  • graphene modifications
  • biometric sensors
  • 3D carbon matrices
  • functional drug delivery carriers
  • wearable electronics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Communication
Beneficial Influence of Water-Soluble PEG-Functionalized C60 Fullerene on Human Osteoblast Growth In Vitro
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061566 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to make an initial assessment of new PEG (polyethylene glycol)-functionalized C60 fullerene derivative for potential bone tissue engineering applications. Thus, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and cyclic voltammetry measurement were performed. Moreover, cell culture [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to make an initial assessment of new PEG (polyethylene glycol)-functionalized C60 fullerene derivative for potential bone tissue engineering applications. Thus, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and cyclic voltammetry measurement were performed. Moreover, cell culture experiments in vitro were carried out using normal human osteoblasts. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test as well as by fluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that resultant derivative possessed good solubility in water, high temperature stability, and retained favorable electron accepting properties of C60 fullerene core. Most important, new fullerene derivatives at low concentrations did not exhibit cytotoxic effect and supported osteoblast proliferation compared to control. Thanks to all mentioned properties of new PEG-functionalized C60 fullerene derivative, it seems that it could be used as a component of polymer-based bone scaffolds in order to enhance their biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanostructure Modifications)
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Article
X-ray Absorption (XRA): A New Technique for the Characterization of Granular Activated Carbons
Materials 2021, 14(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010091 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
The X-ray absorption (XRA) method using digital image processing techniques is a reliable technique to determine the exhaustion degree of granular activated carbons (GACs). Using an innovative digital image processing technique, the identification of individual adsorbed molecules or ions in a GAC was [...] Read more.
The X-ray absorption (XRA) method using digital image processing techniques is a reliable technique to determine the exhaustion degree of granular activated carbons (GACs). Using an innovative digital image processing technique, the identification of individual adsorbed molecules or ions in a GAC was possible. Adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) were used to simulate the adsorption equilibrium data of Methylene Blue (MB), nickel, cobalt and iodine. Freundlich equation was found to have the highest value of R2 compared with Langmuir. The identification of distinctive patterns applying XRA for different adsorbed ions and molecules onto GAC was explored. It is demonstrated that unique XRA configurations for each adsorbed ion or molecule are found, as well as a proportional relationship between its incident energy (needed to achieve maximum photon attenuation) and the (effective) atomic number, the adsorbate mass and the molar or atomic mass of adsorbed molecule or ion. XRA method in combination with image histogram modifications was used to obtain a digital signature of adsorbed ions/molecules, giving distinct GSI values for each one in the used energy range. Probabilistic models prove that XRA results are within relationships between effective atomic number and photonic interaction probability, reinforcing the potentialities of XRA for monitoring (multi-)ion and/or molecule combinations on GAC using advanced digital image processing techniques. It was proved that the proposed approach could assess different adsorbed ions/molecules onto GACs in water purification systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanostructure Modifications)
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Article
Pillared Graphene Structures Supported by Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as the Potential Recognition Element for DNA Biosensors
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225219 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The development of electrochemical biosensors is an important challenge in modern biomedicine since they allow detecting femto- and pico-molar concentrations of molecules. During this study, pillared graphene structures supported by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-graphene) are examined as the potential recognition element of [...] Read more.
The development of electrochemical biosensors is an important challenge in modern biomedicine since they allow detecting femto- and pico-molar concentrations of molecules. During this study, pillared graphene structures supported by vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-graphene) are examined as the potential recognition element of DNA biosensors. Using mathematical modeling methods, the atomic supercells of different (VACNT-graphene) configurations and the energy profiles of its growth are found. Regarding the VACNT(12,6)-graphene doped with DNA nitrogenous bases, calculated band structure and conductivity parameters are used. The obtained results show the presence of adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine on the surface of VACNT(12,6)-graphene significantly changes its conductivity so the considered object could be the prospective element for DNA biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanostructure Modifications)
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Article
Elucidation of Antimicrobial Activity of Non-Covalently Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071676 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Microorganisms have begun to develop resistance because of inappropriate and extensive use of antibiotics in the hospital setting. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to find a way to tackle these pathogens by developing new and effective antimicrobial agents. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have [...] Read more.
Microorganisms have begun to develop resistance because of inappropriate and extensive use of antibiotics in the hospital setting. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to find a way to tackle these pathogens by developing new and effective antimicrobial agents. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted growing attention because of their remarkable mechanical strength, electrical properties, and chemical and thermal stability for their potential applications in the field of biomedical as therapeutic and diagnostic nanotools. However, the impact of carbon nanotubes on microbial growth has not been fully investigated. The primary purpose of this research study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of CNTs, particularly double-walled and multi-walled nanotubes on representative pathogenic strains such as Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and fungal strain Candida albicans. The dispersion ability of CNT types (double-walled and multi-walled) treated with a surfactant such as sodium dodecyl-benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and their impact on the microbial growth inhibition were also examined. A stock concentration 0.2 mg/mL of both double-walled and multi-walled CNTs was prepared homogenized by dispersing in surfactant solution by using probe sonication. UV-vis absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of CNTs dispersed in the surfactant solution to study the interaction between molecules of surfactant and CNTs. Later, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate how CNTs interact with the microbial cells. The antimicrobial activity was determined by analyzing optical density growth curves and viable cell count. This study revealed that microbial growth inhibited by non-covalently dispersed CNTs was both depend on the concentration and treatment time. In conclusion, the binding of surfactant molecules to the surface of CNTs increases its ability to disperse in aqueous solution. Non-covalent method of CNTs dispersion preserved their structure and increased microbial growth inhibition as a result. Multi-walled CNTs exhibited higher antimicrobial activity compared to double-walled CNTs against selected pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Application of Carbon Nanostructure Modifications)
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