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System Design and Materials for Accelerators and Compact Accelerator-Driven Neutron Sources

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2024 | Viewed by 9670

Special Issue Editors

School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: mitigation of electron multipacting and electron cloud; non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating; surface analysis and characterization; vacuum system design for accelerators; neutron source and application of neutron technology

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Guest Editor
School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: development of neutron source and application of neutron technology; radiation protection and imaging; accelerator technology; spent fuel reprocessing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: accelerator; neutron source; nuclear power; reactor physics; reactor thermal-hydraulics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Particle accelerators and compact accelerator-driven neutron sources play a key role in science, medicine, industry and other fields. The performance improvement of particle accelerators and compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) is based on the breakthrough and development of related technologies, such as the vacuum, corrosion protection of targets in neutron sources, target/moderator/reflector (TMR) system design, shielding and collimating, radiography system design, beam shaping assembly (BSA) optimization, radiobiological effects, etc.

For instance, high-energy particles collide with residual gas molecules, which results in the loss of particles and the degradation of the beam quality in accelerators. For vacuum system operations, a high vacuum gradient and electron cloud issues may affect the vacuum quality. A surface providing effective pumping action and low secondary electrons is preferred for vacuum systems of particle accelerators. New film coatings and other accelerator techniques are developed to maintain vacuum stability for possible future applications in vacuum systems. Additionally, the surface characterization of vacuum-related materials is essential for understanding the gas adsorption processes and electron cloud mitigation mechanisms.

In this Special Issue, recent advances and development trends in particle accelerators and compact accelerator-driven neutron sources, such as the mitigation of electron multipacting, non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings, target/moderator/reflector (TMR) system design, shielding and collimating, radiography, beam shaping assembly (BSA) optimization, radiobiological effects, surface analysis and the characterization of related materials used in accelerators and neutron sources, are highlighted and discussed. We would like to take this opportunity to invite researchers to contribute original studies that will help to build an overview on the recent advances and development trends in accelerators and neutron sources and related materials. Full papers, communications and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Jie Wang
Prof. Dr. Sheng Wang
Dr. Zhifeng Li
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating
  • surface analysis and characterization
  • ultra-high vacuum technology
  • boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)
  • corrosion
  • interaction between matters and particles
  • accelerator technology
  • thin film deposition and coatings
  • secondary electron yield
  • compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS)

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3906 KiB  
Article
A Design for the High Yield Photoneutron Source Target Station
by Yuxuan Lai and Yigang Yang
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217674 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Low energy accelerator driven neutron sources are promising candidates to obtain a neutron yield as high as 1014 n/s, which is required for a variety of applications, such as boron neutron capture therapy, neutron imaging, and neutron scattering. The methods to generate [...] Read more.
Low energy accelerator driven neutron sources are promising candidates to obtain a neutron yield as high as 1014 n/s, which is required for a variety of applications, such as boron neutron capture therapy, neutron imaging, and neutron scattering. The methods to generate neutrons can be divided into two categories: hadron-based and photon-based methods. In order to better understand which kind of source would be the better choice for delivering a brilliant neutron beam robustly, in this paper, the underlying principles of neutron production, as well as the simulation results of neutron yield, target heat dissipation, thermal stress, and reaction byproducts concentration of these two types of neutron sources, will be elaborated on. A preliminary photoneutron target station design based on a 50 MeV/50 kW electron linear accelerator, including the optimized neutron yield, thermal hydraulic analysis, and shielding calculation, is presented as well to demonstrate the method to deliver brilliant thermal neutron beam of 1.03 × 1010 cm−2 s−1 sr−1. Full article
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10 pages, 4401 KiB  
Article
A Novel NDT Scanning System Based on Line Array Fast Neutron Detector and D-T Neutron Source
by Sheng Wang, Chao Cao, Wei Yin, Yang Wu, Heyong Huo, Yong Sun, Bin Liu, Xin Yang, Rundong Li, Shilei Zhu, Chunlei Wu, Hang Li and Bin Tang
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144946 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
A novel non-destructive testing scanning system based on a large-size line array fast neutron detector and compact D-T neutron source has been constructed. The scanning range is up to 1000 mm, and the resolution is better than 1 mm. The fast neutron detection [...] Read more.
A novel non-destructive testing scanning system based on a large-size line array fast neutron detector and compact D-T neutron source has been constructed. The scanning range is up to 1000 mm, and the resolution is better than 1 mm. The fast neutron detection subsystem consists of a polypropylene zinc sulfide scintillator embedded with wavelength-shifting fibers, coupled with a light lens and a scientific CCD camera. With a new rotating tritium target, the lifetime of the compact D-T neutron source could achieve ten hours. The experimental results indicate that the scanning method based on line array fast neutron detector and D-T neutron source is feasible and enables the detection of slits on the order of 0.5 mm in width. Fast neutron tomography has been realized by this detection system too. Full article
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15 pages, 7080 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Reinforced Particles Spatial Arrangement on the Neutron Shielding Performance of the Composites
by Weiqiang Sun, Guang Hu, Hu Xu, Yanfei Li, Chao Wang, Tingxuan Men, Fu Ji, Wanji Lao, Bo Yu, Liang Sheng, Jinhong Li, Qinggang Jia, Songqi Xiong and Huasi Hu
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124266 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Particle-reinforced composites are widely applied as nuclear radiation shielding materials for their excellent comprehensive properties. The work aimed to calculate the influence of the functional reinforced particles spatial arrangement on the neutron shielding performance of composites and attempted to explain the influence mechanism [...] Read more.
Particle-reinforced composites are widely applied as nuclear radiation shielding materials for their excellent comprehensive properties. The work aimed to calculate the influence of the functional reinforced particles spatial arrangement on the neutron shielding performance of composites and attempted to explain the influence mechanism by investigating the neutron flux distribution in the materials. Firstly, four suitable physical models were established based on the Monte Carlo Particle Transport Program (MCNP) and mathematical software MATLAB, namely the RSA (Random Sequential Adsorption) Model with particles random arrangement and FCC Model, BCC Model and Staggered Arrangement Model (SA Model) with particle periodic arrangements. Later, based on these four physical models, the neutron transmittance of two kinds of typical B4C reinforced composites, 316 stainless steel matrix composite and polyethylene matrix composite, were calculated under different energy neutrons sources (0.0253 eV, 50 eV, 50 keV, fission spectrum, 241Am-Be spectrum and 14.1 MeV) and the neutron flux distribution in the 316 stainless steel composite was also analyzed under 0.0253 eV neutron and fission neutron sources. The results indicated that the spatial arrangement of B4C has an impact on the neutrons shielding performance of the composite and the influence changes with neutron energy and B4C content. It can be concluded that the RSA model and the periodic arrangement models can be used in different calculation cases in the future. Full article
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10 pages, 3820 KiB  
Article
Water Corrosion of Tungsten Target for Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source
by Yupeng Xie, Qiuyu Sun, Yaocheng Hu, Xiaobo Li, Zhaopeng Qiao, Jie Wang and Sheng Wang
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103448 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
The water corrosion of tungsten as a target material can affect the safe operation of accelerator-driven neutron source. This paper reported the corrosion behaviors of tungsten in ultrapure water and tap water for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days. Moreover, ICP-MS, XRD, [...] Read more.
The water corrosion of tungsten as a target material can affect the safe operation of accelerator-driven neutron source. This paper reported the corrosion behaviors of tungsten in ultrapure water and tap water for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days. Moreover, ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDS and LSCM were used to analyze the components in solutions, crystalline structures, chemical compositions and surface morphologies. It was found that the dissolution of tungsten, due to corrosion, reached its maximum between 30 days and 60 days in both solutions. The cube-shape substance, CaWO4, was the main corrosion product after tungsten in tap water. The tungsten oxide was changed from WO3 to WO2 during the corrosion of tungsten in ultrapure water. Compared with tungsten in ultrapure water, tungsten in tap water had its surface completely destroyed, with a dense diamond shape. Therefore, based on the analysis from this study, the corrosion mechanisms of tungsten in ultrapure and tap water were revealed. Full article
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15 pages, 5541 KiB  
Article
Study on the Design, Preparation, and Performance Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Interlayer-Polyimide-Resin-Based Neutron-Shielding Materials
by Hu Xu, Dan Liu, Wei-Qiang Sun, Rong-Jun Wu, Wu Liao, Xiao-Ling Li, Guang Hu and Hua-Si Hu
Materials 2022, 15(9), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15092978 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Polymers have an excellent effect in terms of moderating fast neutrons with rich hydrogen and carbon, which plays an indispensable role in shielding devices. As the shielding of neutrons is typically accompanied by the generation of γ-rays, shielding materials are developed from monomers [...] Read more.
Polymers have an excellent effect in terms of moderating fast neutrons with rich hydrogen and carbon, which plays an indispensable role in shielding devices. As the shielding of neutrons is typically accompanied by the generation of γ-rays, shielding materials are developed from monomers to multi-component composites, multi-layer structures, and even complex structures. In this paper, based on the typical multilayer structure, the integrated design of the shield component structure and the preparation and performance evaluation of the materials is carried out based on the design sample of the heat-resistant lightweight polymer-based interlayer. Through calculation, the component structure of the polymer-based materials and the three-layer thickness of the shield are obtained. The mass fraction of boron carbide accounts for 11% of the polymer-based material. Since the polymer-based material is the weak link of heat resistance of the multilayer shield, in terms of material selection and modification, the B4C/TiO2/polyimide molded plate was prepared by the hot-pressing method, and characterization analysis was conducted for its structure and properties. The results show that the ball milling method can mix the materials well and realize the uniform dispersion of B4C and TiO2 in the polyimide matrices. Boron carbide particles are evenly distributed in the material. Except for Ti, the other elemental content of the selected areas for mapping is in good agreement with the theoretical values of the elemental content of the system. The prepared B4C/TiO2/polyimide molded plate presents excellent thermal properties, and its glass transition temperature and initial thermal decomposition temperature are as high as 363.6 °C and 572.8 °C, respectively. In addition, the molded plate has good toughness performs well in compression resistance, shock resistance, and thermal aging resistance, which allows it to be used for a long time under 300 °C. Finally, the prepared materials are tested experimentally on an americium beryllium neutron source. The experimental results match the simulation results well. Full article
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11 pages, 4682 KiB  
Article
Influence of Film Coating Thickness on Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics of Non-Evaporable Getter Ti-Hf-V-Zr Coated Open-Cell Copper Foam Substrates
by Jing Zhang, Jie Wang, Yong Gao, Yaocheng Hu, Yupeng Xie, Zhiming You and Sheng Wang
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062185 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The application of vacuum materials with low secondary electron yield (SEY) is one of the effective methods to mitigate the electron cloud (EC). In this study, the Ti-Hf-V-Zr non-evaporable getter (NEG) film was deposited on open-cell copper foams with different pore sizes for [...] Read more.
The application of vacuum materials with low secondary electron yield (SEY) is one of the effective methods to mitigate the electron cloud (EC). In this study, the Ti-Hf-V-Zr non-evaporable getter (NEG) film was deposited on open-cell copper foams with different pore sizes for the suppression of electron multipacting effects. Besides, the influence of the film thickness on the secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics of Ti-Hf-V-Zr NEG film-coated open-cell copper foam substrates was investigated for the first time. The results highlighted that all uncoated and NEG-coated foamed porous copper substrates achieved a low SEY (<1.2), which reduced at least 40% compared to the traditional copper plates, and the foamed porous coppers with 1.34-μm-thick NEG coating had the lowest SEY. Moreover, the surface chemistry and the morphological and structural properties of foamed porous coppers of different pore sizes with and without Ti-Hf-V-Zr NEG films were systematically analyzed. Full article
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